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高中英语写作教学实践研究——以高一学生求助信写作为例

作者/来源:南模中学 邢千里    发布时间:2017-06-28

高中英语写作教学实践研究

——以高一学生求助信写作为例


一.       课题与背景

新课标要求学生必须具备运用英语获取信息、表达思想、交际交流的能力,而写作作为书面交际的基本方式,其教学也是高中英语教学的重要任务。然而,如今高中英语写作教学现状并不尽如人意,在高一英语写作教学中,主要问题体现在:(1)写作目的不真实,学生缺乏写作动机;(2)写前未充分激活内容图式,习作空洞无误(3)写作评价方式单一,欠缺指导意义;(4)写作教学结果导向,忽视写作过程、写作技巧的指导。

         由此,笔者认为过程性写作是改变这一教学现状的途径之一。过程性谢作认为写作的过程是群体成员间的交互过程。该过程可分为(Tribble, 1996)写前准备(planning)、草稿阶段(drafting)、修改阶段(revising)以及编辑阶段(editing)。教师可在准备阶段通过小组讨论、头脑风暴、启发式提问等使学生就写作主题激活图示、获取素材;之后学生可在草稿阶段对所得信息进行整合,拟定写作提纲,完成初稿;初稿完成后,教师可组织学生为他人初稿提出意见建议;最后,学生基于他人建议修改初稿,进一步补减润色。

二.       教学设计及其说明

(一)教学目标的确定

    基于写作教学现状以及过程性写作理论,笔者以牛津上海版高中英语高一下第五单元的写作任务为蓝本,拟定了就成长的烦恼写求助信这一课堂主题,并列出三点教学目标

1.    学生能知道求助信的写作格式以及写作目的

2.    学生能清楚阐述自身成长烦恼、提供一定细节信息并运用恰当语言求助

3.    学生能根据互评表对他人习作进行评价

(二)教学活动的设计

    为了达成以上教学目标笔,笔者按照写前-写中-写后三环节进行教学设计。

    写前环节有三个任务。首先,教师呈现一篇求助信例文,引导学生阅读例文找出例文中心话题Growing pains,自然导入本科主题。随后通过教师分享自己青春期时的growing pain,激活学生生活体验,唤起学生的情感共鸣,引导学生小组轮流讲述自己成长过程中的烦恼,由此为写作完成提供话题和素材铺垫。之后教师引导学生二读例文,分析求助信的格式、内容以及语言,明确求助性写作的三个基本要求即提问具体、阐述充分以及求助有礼,为学生写作搭建语言和文体上的脚手架,。

    在写中环节,教师将引导学生给老师写一封求助信,简要阐述成长过程中的烦恼并询问建议、请求帮助。有了写前环节的铺垫,学生明确了写什么,同时明白了怎么写,将求助信写作知识加以运用实践。

    读后环节包含同伴互评以及呈现分享两个任务。教师随机分发学生初稿习作,并引导学生按照互评表对同伴习作的内容、格式、语言等进行评价,此举不仅能巩固课堂学习的求助信写作要求,还能培养学生修改完善的写作习惯,以及评价反思的学习能力。之后教师将邀请若干名学生分享其评价的习作,引导全班同学再次回顾本课教学重点,并为习作的修改润色提供指导样板。

    作业部分要求学生针对收到的求助信写下建议,此外找回自身的求助信,并根据同伴的修改进一步完善习作。学生能巩固本课所学,写下的建议也为后一课时的求助信回信写作提供素材。

(三)教学评价

    本课教学的评价手段主要包括教师对学生个人的口头评价、学生对学生个体的书面评价、学生对学生个体的口头评价三种。其中学生对学生个体的评价作为写后环节的组成部分,是本课的评价亮点。在写后环节中,学生需按照要求圈划求助信中的求助问题以及问题细节信息,并针对语言或内容做至少一处修改。因为是同伴习作分享,话题又带有一定私密性,所以很大程度上激发学生阅读互评的积极性;其次,学生通过圈划,回顾了求助信的写作要求,确保本课教学目标的达成;此外,针对内容或语言的修改这项任务的布置,促使学生考量文章的完整性、流畅性以及语言的适当性、丰富性。

    除学生对学生的书面评价之外,学生还将上讲台演示自己所批改的习作,并做简短口头评价。这一过程中,评价者可以带领班级同学以具体案例学习的方式,再次巩固本节课重点,同学们亦可参与到评价中,提出习作结构、内容以及语言方面的建议。教师可酌情针对学生的评价进行总结、深化。

三.       教学反思

    总体来说,本课较好地完成预先设定的课程目标,课堂中学生回应踊跃、习作规范,在总结环节生成了学生对自身定位认识以及与他人相处的新认识。有听课老师评价道,教师以自己的经历做例子,激发学生的同感共情,通过讨论帮助学生拓展思路、积累写作材料;通过范例分析帮助学生明晰问题结构,最后通过学生互评体现课堂产出效果以及及时的反馈指导。

    当然,在本课实际进行过程中,笔者也发现不少有待改进之处。比如,在同伴互评环节展示环节,学生已经表现出一定的语篇意识,有意识地关注文章的逻辑连贯,如增删逻辑连接词、语篇信号词等等。由此,教师可以适当提示学生,培养语篇意识,增强学生写作文章的连贯性和流畅性以及语言的适当性和丰富性。


 

附录一:教案一稿

Lesson Plan for

Growing Pains: a Request for Advice

 

Learning Objectives

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to

1. know the form and purpose of this type of writing

2. state their problems clearly, list specific details of their problems and politely ask for advice

3. offer reasonable and encouraging reply in answer to the request

Teaching Procedures

stages

teacher’s activities

students’ activities

purposes

Lead-in

Present a clip of Forrest Gump   bullied by peers

Watch   the clip and answer the questions

to   activate Ss’ interest and to elicit the topic

 

l  What kind of life did   Forrest have?

l  What pains was he   going through?→pains

l  If you were Forrest,   what would you do?→turn to others for advice

 

 

 

Learning to request

 

 

Present   and analyze the sample writing and elicit the criteria of a request letter

Read   and think about the three requirements of a good request

to   establish the writing criteria and prepare Ss for while-reading part

l  What was Jenny’s   pain?→Specific

l  How can you tell Jenny   was painful?→Detailed(examples; feelings; thoughts)

l  What other things   should be paid attention to when asking for advice?→Polite

Cooperative Writing

Present   Forrest’s first draft of his request letter

 

Evaluate   and polish the letter according to the criteria

to   stimulate  Ss to output their language   and content schema with the “supervised” writing 

Individual Writing

Ask   Ss to write down a request for advice based on their own daily problems

Think   of a problem they came across and write a request for advice on worksheets

to   establish the writing criteria and prepare Ss for reply-writing part

Post-

writing

Handout   Ss’ worksheets randomly;

Ask   Ss to evaluate the letters according to the checklist

Review   and evaluate others’ writing according to the checklist

to   emphasize the important points;

to   train Ss peer-review skill and evaluation skill

Invite   Ss to share pieces of writing

Share   and comment

Homework

1. Polish your request   letter

2. Prepare for the   presentation named Pains and Gains based on your worksheets

to   consolidate what they’ve learned in class and prepare materials for narrative   writing






Worksheet

Sample writing: Jenny’s letter to Ms Robbins

Read the letter and answer:

1.     What is Jenny’s pain?

2.     How can you tell the she is painful? (Underline the evidence)

Dear Ms Robbins

I really appreciate how you are always willing to help us. I am, at the moment, having some trouble in getting along with my classmates.

I’m getting along well with a boy in our class. We often do homework together and we enjoy helping each other. We have become really good friends. Unfortunately, other students have started gossiping, saying that this boy and I have fallen in love. The other day after class, when my friend and I left the classroom together, some nasty boys started chanting “Forrest and Jenny, sitting in a tree: K-I-S-S-I-N-G…” This has made me very angry.

What should I do? On one hand, I do cherish the friendship and don’t want to end it. On the other hand, I hate others gossiping and joking.

Thanks for reading my letter. I am anxiously waiting for your reply.

Yours sincerely,

Jenny

 

 

First draft of Forrest’s request letter

Polish this draft according to the three requirements listed on the blackboard.

Hi!

I suffered a lot, especially since I began my primary school.

I don’t know why people are unfriendly to me. And my legs hurt. I feel painful because of this miserable life. I told my mum about it, but she said nothing except something irrelevant “Life is a box of chocolates.” But I don’t see my life as sweet as chocolates.

What should I do? Help me!

Love,

Forrest Gump

Your request for help

Write a letter about 60 words to ask for suggestions regarding your growing pains. Make sure that you state your problem clearly, list specific details (experience, feelings, thoughts) and politely ask for advice.

 The following questions may help you:

-        Who will you turn to for help?

-        What is your problem? What happened? How do you feel about it?

-        What do you what to know from the reply letter?

___________

     _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

____________

Peer Review

Read the letter above and finish following tasks.

1.     Tick the Boxes

  Is the problem stated clearly and specifically?

  Is the detail sufficient and logically stated?

  Is the language polite and appropriate?

2.     Correct mistakes

3.     Make some improvements (words and sentence patterns)

4.     Write down at least 2 suggestions

_____________________________

_____________________________


 

附录二:教案二稿          

Lesson Plan for

Growing Pains: a Request for Advice

 

Learning Objectives

By the end of the lesson, students will be able to

l   know the form and purpose of this type of writing

l   state their problems clearly, list specific details of their problems and politely ask for advice

l   comment on others’ writing according to the checklist

 

Teaching Emphasis & Difficult Points

write a request letter with specifically-stated problem, sufficient details and proper language

 

Teaching Procedures

stages

purposes

Activities

Evaluation

Lead-in

to   lead in the topic

 

Read Jenny’s letter

Students   can find out Jenny’s growing pain correctly.

Pre-writing

to   elicit the empathy on Ss’ part and prepare them for the writing topic

Hold a discussion regarding   growing pains

Students can willingly share   their own growing pains in groups.

to   equip Ss with structural knowledge of a request letter

Read for the basic structure of a   request letter

Students can develop a general   idea of the structure of a request letter.

While-writing

to   urge Ss to put writing knowledge into practice

Write a request letter regarding   their growing pains

Students can write a request   letter regarding their growing pains.

Post-

writing

to   consolidate Ss’ knowledge through case study

 

Evaluate   peers’ letters according to the checklist

Students   can review and evaluate others’ writing according to the checklist.

to   train Ss peer-review skill and evaluation skill

Share   and comment on others’ writing

Students   can share and comment on others’ writing.

to   sum up the main points of the lesson

sum   up the requirements of a request letter

Students   can recall the main points of the lesson.

Assignment

3. Write down at least   two suggestions for the request letter

4. Find your own   worksheet and polish your request letter

Worksheet

Sample writing: Jenny’s letter to Miss Xing

Read the letter and find out what Jenny’s pain is.

Dear Miss Xing

I am writing to ask for suggestions because I am having some trouble in getting along with my classmates.

I’m getting along well with a boy in our class. We often do homework together and we enjoy helping each other. Unfortunately, other students have started gossiping, saying that this boy and I have fallen in love. The other day, when my friend and I left the classroom together after class, some nasty boys started chanting “Forrest and Jenny, sitting in a tree: K-I-S-S-I-N-G…” This has made me very angry.

What should I do? On one hand, I do cherish the friendship and don’t want to end it. On the other hand, I hate others gossiping and joking.

Thanks for reading my letter. I am anxiously waiting for your reply.

Yours sincerely,

Jenny

 

Your request for help

Write a letter to ask Miss Xing for suggestions regarding your growing pains. The following questions may help you:

-        What is your problem? What happened? How did you feel about it?

-        What do you what to know from the reply letter?

Dear Miss Xing,        __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Check and Share

Read the letter above and

1. Circle the author’s growing pain(s)

2. Underline all the specific details of the growing pain(s)

3. Make at least one improvement in content or language

 

 

 


 




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