高中英语写作教学实践研究课例 ——基于热门话题展开观点“What does bike-sharing bring us?” - 内容 - 徐汇中学英语网
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高中英语写作教学实践研究课例 ——基于热门话题展开观点“What does bike-sharing bring us?”

作者/来源:南模中学 邸轶    发布时间:2017-06-28

高中英语写作教学实践研究课例

——基于热门话题展开观点“What does bike-sharing bring us?”

 

一、课题与背景:

在高中英语教学中,写作教学对于学生英语技能的培养而言尤为重要。提高高中生的英语写作能力无论是对高考还是对今后的英语能力全面发展而言都极其关键。然而对于大多数学生而言,英语写作是一个普遍的难题。写什么怎么写都是他们在写作时面临的巨大障碍。

高二学生经过一年多的高中英语学习已经有了较强的自信心和自主学习能力。经过一定的训练,能基本达到普通高中英语课程标准写作目标八级中的能写出语意连贯且结构完整的短文,叙述事情或表达观点和态度。上海卷英语高考作文以议论文为主,通过摆事实、讲道理的方式就某个问题发表自己的看法。在议论文写作中,学生虽然对议论文的结构和特点比较熟悉和了解,但普遍存在角度单一片面,内容贫乏肤浅,观点展开不充分等问题。如果长此以往进行机械训练,不但无益于问题的解决,还会大大挫伤学生的写作积极性。

建构主义教学观认为,教学不是通过教师向学生单向传递知识就可以完成的,知识也不是通过教师传授而得到的,而是学习者在一定的情境即社会文化背景下,借助于其他人(包括教师和教学伙伴)的帮助,利用必要的教学资料,通过意义建构的方式而获得的。如何创设情境,让学生在其中自主地进行写作活动是教师所要研究和探索的。在教学过程中笔者发现,社会热门话题总是能够引起学生的充分思考和自主讨论。如果将热门话题引入写作课堂中,势必也能激发学生的思维热情。另外,在同一个班中,学生在语言能力、逻辑思维、课外知识方面的水平参差不齐,因此以小组写作的形式进行写作教学可以突破个人的能力瓶颈。通过小组成员之间、小组之间和师生之间的互动,进行思维碰撞,取长补短,从而弥补自己在写作水平和能力上的短板和不足。

根据以上几个方面,加之对话题的考量和筛选,笔者将课题定为议论文写作中基于热门话题展开观点的“What does bike-sharing bring us?”。通过对共享单车这一热门话题的讨论和写作技法的教授,使学生能在写作时观点更多样,内容更丰富,思考更深入。

 

二、教学设计及其说明:

   (一)教学目标的确定:

    基于以上的教学背景和学情分析,笔者制定了本课的教学目标如下:

    1. 找出共享单车的优势以及存在的问题。

    2. 学会如何展开观点。

    3. 根据学到的理论写成一个段落,并能够评论他人的习作。

教学目标分层展开。在学会展开观点进行论述之前,首先要形成观点。通过扩展阅读和头脑风暴,形成一个思想库,让学生在进行议论文写作之前就建立辩证思维的意识,使得议论文更加科学,更有说服力。在此基础上再教授学生如何对某一个观点运用不同论据进行展开,避免学生在写作时过于简单,论述不充分。通过这两个层次,既促进学生思考全面,又使得学生思考深入。令学生不仅有话可说,还能把话说清

 

   (二)教学活动的设计:

    本课的最大特点是层层深入,层层铺垫,教学环节之间有着紧密的联系。在写前,为了实现有话可说把话说清,教师进行了三个任务的铺垫:

任务一:列举出共享单车的诸多优势。共享单车是时下最热门的话题之一,它既引发了许多社会思考,又与学生的生活密切相关,许多学生都使用过共享单车,对它有着切身的体会。因此能够在教师抛出的问题“Why do you choose bike-sharing as a way of transportation”的引导下针对共享单车的优势各抒己见,呈现出一系列观点,例如:方便、价格低廉、环保、有利于健康、缓解交通压力等,为进一步思维打下基础。

任务二:阅读补充读物,从文中提炼出与共享单车有关的问题。在阅读之前,教师提问:“If you are asked to write an essay on the current situation of bike-sharing, Can you only write the benefits?”此时,学生开始初步形成辩证思维的意识,明白要从正反两面剖析问题,但是许多社会问题是学生难以发现和深究的。此时,教师下发一篇补充读物,让学生充分了解对于共享单车的不同观点。此时,学生在阅读过程中会发现共享单车会涉及到私藏、偷窃、假冒二维码、同行间恶性竞争、使用者违反交规等问题。通过这样的步骤,学生就能深刻地理解要全面地看待问题,摈弃片面、单向的思维,建立辩证思维,并将这种思维习惯溶入写作中,为议论文写作打下坚实的基础。

任务三:学习如何展开观点。经过之前的两个环节,学生建立起了一个思想库,也知道可以从哪些角度展开论述。但是议论文写作不是简单的观点堆砌,它的论证必须合理严密,论据必须充分可靠。在这个环节中,学生不仅了解了一个论述充分的段落应具备的结构和特点,也学会用不同的方式来支持论点,为写作环节埋下良好的伏笔。

经过以上三个环节的铺垫,学生可以着手开始写作。由于教学时长限制,无法在短时间内形成一篇完整的议论文,学生可以在思想库中选取一个角度,根据上一个环节学到的知识,对观点展开论述。本次写作形式为小组写作,教师将学生分为六人小组,通过讨论选取一个擅长的角度,集思广益搜集论据,形成一个条理清晰、逻辑严密、思考深入的段落。

在写后的展示环节中,教师鼓励学生自告奋勇上台展示小组写作成果。在展示完毕后请其他同学进行点评。在点评和聆听点评的过程中,各小组成员取长补短,记录下其他小组作品中的闪光点,为进一步修改文章打下基础。在充分听取学生的展示后,教师以一句话总结了本堂课的学习内容:在议论文写作中,应当摈弃片面思维,促进辩证思维;并且应当摆脱肤浅思维,加强深度思维。在学生对结语的齐声朗读中结束了本堂课,并布置了作业,修改在课内写作的段落,巩固课上所学,为下一阶段的写作学习铺上坚实的垫脚石。

 

   (三)教学评价:

本课的教学评价涉及生生评价以及教师评价。生生评价的内容包含两方面内容:一、知识性评价,即段落的写作是否与所教授的内容相符,例如,该段落的结构是否正确,论点是什么,用了哪些论据等;二、赏析性评价,即论点是否清晰,论据是否多样充分,论述是否合理,有什么优点与不足等。通过生生评价,激发学生的学习热情,提高他们在课堂中的专注度,形成友好互助的学风。同时在互评的过程中学习他人之长处,完善本组的写作,形成不断进步的良心循环。

教师评价是生生评价的补充,是对细节方面的评价。其中,教师会指出学生的好词好句,点评过渡词的使用,以及文中其他的亮点。教师评价旨在点出生生评价中没有发现的细节之处,帮助学生发现同伴的闪光点,鼓励学生大胆思维,勇敢表达,增强学生的写作兴趣和信心。

 

三、教学反思:

从效果来看,本课基本达到了既定目标。预设的环节环环相扣,学生很容易就进入到教师所设定的情境中,为他们良好的产出打下基础。通过贴近生活的话题,帮助学生用英语表达对日常生活中的现象进行思考成为了可能。对共享单车的优势和问题的层层深入,让学生的思考得到了良好的发展。帮助学生理解并掌握议论文段落展开论述的写法,对文章的产出都起着积极的作用。

本堂课使笔者感触良多。首先,兴趣是最好的老师。这句话于学生而言正确无疑。在选题的过程中,必须切中学生的兴趣点,才能使得学生全身心地投入到内容中,同时不断向外扩展和学习,举一反三,将课内所学知识运用到其他主题的写作中去。

其次,要时刻牢记学生是课堂的主体。在设计和授课的过程中切不可将教师自己置于课堂的中心,在学生的回答出现偏差时要多追问,多让学生表达不同的观点,才可以尽可能地掌握学生在这方面的思维不同之处,同时也可以为今后的写作教学做好铺垫。

再次,必须进一步提高临场应变能力。尽管预设尽可能地全面和周到,但最后从时间上来看还是没有完全达到预期的效果。是任务设置过难,还是引导的问题不得当,这是笔者一直在反思的问题,可能也将是未来一段时间的长期课题。

最后还是要说说学生。学生在课堂中的表现给笔者留下了深刻的印象。尤其是在小组写作环节,他们往往能展示出一些令人惊喜的内容。这使笔者不禁为他们的四溅的思想火花和日臻纯熟的语言技巧所折服,真可谓教学相长。因此,为了有助于学生的发展,作为教师也必须不断学习新的知识、新的教学法,从而真正适应学生的需要。

 

 

 

邸轶

2017.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

附录1

Lesson plan (first edition)

Teaching Objectives:

1.      To help students understand elements toward building a good argumentative essay.

2.      To improve students’ abilities in establishing facts and logical thinking.

3.      To cultivate students’ confidence and spirit of cooperation.

Teaching Procedures:

Stages

Teacher’s   activity

Students’   activity

Purpose


Pre-task

l  Show students a news clip on the controversial topic.   (Mobike or AI, undecided)

l  Ask students’ value towards this topic.

l  Watch the clip and get interested in the topic.

l  Answer teacher’s question.

l  To arouse students’ interest in the topic and get   ready for further thinking.


Task   1

l  Show students background information about this   topic.

l  Ask students to create the first paragraph of the   essay.

l  Read the background information carefully and create   the first paragraph according to it.

l  To make sure that the first paragraph introduce the   background and inform the reader of your value.


Task   2

l  Ask students to work in groups to establish flow   from paragraph to paragraph, and find out three points to support your value.

l  Have students check upon the sequence of the three   points.

l  Write Three points to support your value.

l  Complete Mind map 1.

l  Check the sequence and rearrange their writings.

l  To help students stay focused on their value.

l  To help students building their logical thinking.


Task   3 (emphasis)

l  Ask students to criticize their values by going   against their former points correspondingly.

l  Have students find out the similarity of these   points to create a paragraph.

l  Think reversely and find evidence to go against   their former points.

l  Complete Mind map 2.

l  Create a new paragraph.

l  To lay emphasis on the importance of an unbiased   essay.


Post-task

l  Ask students to rearrange the whole essay.

l  Invite students to present in front of the class.

l  Rearrange the essay and present.

l  To consolidate what they’ve learnt in class.

l  To improve the arrangement of the essay


Assignment

Edit,   correct or re-write your essay, and check if it is convincing and unbiased.

Lesson plan (second edition)

Teaching Objectives:

4.      To help students understand elements toward building a good argumentative essay.

5.      To improve students’ abilities in establishing facts and logical thinking.

6.      To cultivate students’ confidence and spirit of cooperation.

Teaching Procedures:

Stages

Teacher’s   activity

Students’   activity

Purpose


Pre-task

Show   students a news clip on bike-sharing.

Watch   the clip and get interested in the topic.

Answer   teacher’s question.

To   arouse students’ interest in the topic and get ready for further thinking.


Ask   students’ value towards this topic.


Task   1

Get   students to read the sample essay and show students the basic parts of   argumentative essay.

Read   the essay carefully and get the basic knowledge.

To   help students understand how to arrange this kind of argumentative essay.


Task   2

Ask   students to brainstorm the advantages and disadvantages of bike-sharing.

Discuss   and brainstorm.

To   activate students’ thoughts on bike-sharing to lay a solid foundation of   further writing.


Remind   students to pay attention to the logical order of the points they have given.

Rearrange   the order of each point

To   help students build logical thinking.


Task   3

Give   a version of conclusion and ask students’ opinion on it.

Think   about how to make the conclusion more convincing.

To   lead students to incorporate convincingness into their essay.


Have   students weigh the advantages and disadvantages in order to get to the   conclusion.


Task   4

Ask   students to rearrange the whole essay and invite students to present in front   of the class.

Rearrange   the essay and present.

To   consolidate what students have learnt in class.


Assignment

Polish   your essay and check with your peers.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lesson plan (final edition)

Learning objectives:

By the end of the class, students will be able to

l  find out the benefits and problems on bike-sharing.

l  learn the techniques on how to write a well-developed paragraph. 

l  write a well-developed paragraph and appreciate others’ writings.

 

Teaching emphasis &Difficult points: 

Learn to use different types of evidence to support the idea.

 

Teaching procedures:

Stages

Purposes

 Activities

Evaluation

Lead-in

To arouse interest in the topic

l  Show a video clip on   the topic.

Students can get   interested in the topic..

Task One

To   get ready for further thinking.

l  Sort out the benefits   of bike-sharing.

Students   can give the value towards bike-sharing and list various benefits

Task Two

To find out information in the article.

To improve critical thinking.

l  Read the articles and   find problems of bike-sharing.

l  Rethink of the   problems.

Students   can figure out  problems of   bike-sharing after reading the article.

Task Three

To   learn the structure of a well-developed paragraph.

To   establish deep thinking.

l  Learn   the basic skills on how to develop an idea.

Students can understand   the structure and different types of evidence used to support the idea.

Task Four

To   write a paragraph according to the instructions.

To   give comments objectively.

l  Write   a well-developed paragraph.

l  Make   comments on others’ writings.

Students   can write a paragraph and appreciate others’ writings through peer-review.

Assignment

Revise your writings   and check with your peers.

 

 

 

附录2

Handout

1. Read the following article, and find out the problems related to bike-sharing:

By the end of 2016, the number of bike-sharing app users in China had reached 18.9 million and the market continues to grow. However, problems have emerged that call for more attention.

Some of the bikes are hidden by selfish users so others cannot use them. Others were found broken intentionally. Fraudsters even glue a payment code to the shared bikes so people who mistakenly scan them transfer money to them rather than the bike-sharing company.

Moreover, China's ongoing battle between Mobike and Ofo, two major bike-sharing startups, may bring about unexpected side effects.

The Shanghai-based Mobike have reportedly secured another US$215 million in its series D funding round, while the Beijing-based Ofo is said to have gained around US$200 million after its latest round of financing last October.

This may fuel the already fierce competition among rivals and inevitably hurt bike factories and local economies, analysts say.

A man calling himself Leo and working at the operation department of Mobike Company came to learn more about the bikes taken away by the traffic police.

Leo has contacted traffic police more than once to reclaim Mobikes taken for various reasons. Parking violations are the most common reason, followed by violation of traffic rules. Traffic accidents involving disputes, though fewer in number, also cause serious trouble, he said.

"Many streets in Shanghai ban cycling. Some streets don't have bike lanes, and others are one-way lanes. Running a red light happens to our Mobike user, too," said Leo. For example, the Bund is among the places that have banned pedaling or parking a bike. But many cyclists either do not know the regulations or break them knowingly for convenience.

Most Mobike users who broke rules chose to let the bikes be taken away and then instantly drew off the deposit from their personal Mobike accounts, avoiding responsibilities.

 

 

 

 

 

2. Note-taking:

benefits

problems



 

 

 

3. The outline of a well-developed paragraph:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

附录3

Worksheet

draft:

   

 

 

 

 

Write one paragraph in 60 to 80 words with a clearly stated point supported by statistics, examples or facts.

                                                                        

                                                                      

                                                                      

                                                                       

                                                                      

                                                                       

                                                                     

 

附录4

Students’ works and peer reviews:

1.

Bike-sharing leads a healthier lifestyle. It is a new fashion trend among youngsters. With the development of the economy, more and more people are willing to ride bikes because they always spend a lot of hours staying in office or at home. For example, my mom used to be a couch potato, now she prefers to go out and expose herself to nature. It is obvious that bike-sharing provides us with an opportunity to workout and make us healthier.

peer review: This paragraph has a clear idea. There are two types of evidence used in the paragraph - a fact and an example. However, I don’t think the fact is very persuasive. In my view, if they can use some statistics to support the idea, it will be better.

 

2.

There are problems related to bike-sharing. Recently, there seems to be a growing trend of the development of bike-sharing. As far as I am concerned, though it has a promising future, there are still some alerting points. First of all, as a matter of fact, bike-sharing reflects a part of people’s moral problems. People hid those bikes for their private use, some with malicious intention even broke the bikes or faked the QR code for their own profits. Apart from the moral problems, users may violate the traffic rules and eventually get their bikes taken away by police. Last but not least, the ill competition between the two major bike-sharing companies will inevitably lead to the bad results of economy. In all, bike-sharing provides a better way to commute, but it still has a long way to go.

peer review: This paragraph has a clear idea. The writer mainly use facts to support the idea. The sentences are smooth and the transition words are perfectly used. The ending sentence gives us much thought, thus bringing the paragraph onto a whole new level.



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