高中英语写作教学实践研究课例 ——写作中动词的使用 - 内容 - 徐汇中学英语网
教育信息网
星期三, 2017年,六月,28日

当前位置:首页 > 教学研究 > 教师论文

高中英语写作教学实践研究课例 ——写作中动词的使用

作者/来源:南模中学 吴一凡    发布时间:2017-06-28

高中英语写作教学实践研究课例

——写作中动词的使用

一、     课题与背景

写作作为英语四大技能听说读写中的一项,相比于其它三项技能,在英语教学中一直以来都较少受到教师和学生的重视。这一方面是由于大班授课制很难保证写作教学有效性,另一方面则是由于写作在英语中高考中所占的分值比例不高。近年来,随着英语教学教研工作的发展和英语考改的推进,写作教学得到了越来越多的关注。

对于高三下半学期的学生来说,经过两年多的学习和操练,已熟练掌握了各类文体的基本框架。然而,在一些写作的细节方面,特别是在如何写出一篇较为出彩的文章这一点上,还有一定的提升空间。

要提升学生写作的可读性,作文中所使用的动词起到了至关重要的作用。正如Jeffrey Strausser在其Painless Writing一书中指出,生动形象的动词不仅有助于作者传情达意,更能吸引读者,使其在阅读过程中感到身临其境并产生共鸣。在写作中,选择强有力的动词能使文章增色,而笼统无力的动词则难以激发读者的阅读兴趣。这一写作原则,适用于各类不同的文体。

二、     教学设计及其说明

(一)教学目标的确定

基于上述教学现状,学生学情和教学理论,本课教学重点关注写作中动词的使用。让学生在课堂中,体会到写作中的传情达意可通过动词巧妙的运用来得以实现,激活其原有的词汇储备,使学生的作文达到一个新的高度。

本课的教学目标是唤起学生对动词上义词和下义词的区分意识,并能根据语境和作者的写作目的选用恰当的下义词来进行传情达意,从而使文章更加生动形象、引人入胜。

(二)教学活动的设计

本课的教学活动主要分为写前,写中,写后三个环节。这样的设计,使学生能循序渐进地从在写前环节中意识到写作中动词选用的重要性及关键点,到通过写中环节调用自身词汇储备亲身实践加深认识,最终在写后环节同伴展示互评巩固其对动词选用理解的深度。

写前环节由三个任务组成。首先,教师向学生展示两个段落来明确本课的重点。这两个段落其中一段用的动词都是上义词,另一段用的动词都是下义词,其他完全一致。学生通过比较两个段落哪个写得更好,体会到在使用形象生动的动词下义词的写作效果比使用较为笼统含糊的动词上义词要出彩很多。其次,教师给出四对语境中的动词下义词,让学生结对讨论,选出恰当的动词下义词并说明理由。教师通过此活动引导学生逐步归纳出写作中动词下义词选用的三个关键因素,即语境、作者观点及情感态度。接着,教师带领学生共同修改一个段落中的动词,示范作文修改的格式,为写中环节做铺垫。

在写中环节,教师将全班分为两大组,修改两个不同的班中学生习作段落。两个大组中再分为三人一小组,进行小组讨论,找出原文中写得较为出彩的动词,并修改本组讲义上所印的班中学生习作中围绕在温暖的四月份你最想做什么的一个段落。在此环节中,学生通过讨论,充分调动自身的词汇储备,并运用写前环节归纳出的三个动词下义词选用的关键因素——语境、作者观点及情感态度——加深对写作中动词选用的认识。在此过程中,学生通过对同伴习作的修改,进一步意识到自身写作中需要注意和改进的地方,并通过深入思考修改原因,让学生知其然更知其所以然。

在写后环节,教师邀请学生上台向全班同学展示修改成果。教师要求三位同学一人声情并茂地朗读修改后的段落,一人阐述本组在原文中较为欣赏的动词及原因,另一人则对本组修改的动词进行说明。在学生展示后,教师请其他学生对该组的段落进行点评,说出自己最喜欢的动词替换,以及对未提及的动词选用的建议,并说明理由。在整个活动中,教师充分调动学生的积极性,鼓励同伴互相学习,着重强调学生对动词选用三个要素的把握,对动词选用起到的关键性作用,将本课所学的写作中动词下义词选用的相关知识进一步内化。最后,教师展示班级学生佳作,进行总结并布置作业,让学生课后修改自己之前写的同题作文,巩固本课所学。

(三)教学评价

本课的评价手段主要包括了教师对单个学生的口头评价,教师对小组学生的口头评价,单个学生对单个学生的口头评价,小组学生对单个学生习作的书面及口头评价,以及单个学生对小组学生的口头评价。

教师对单个学生的口头评价主要目的是在写前环节引导学生意识到动词选用对写作的重要性以及在写作中如何选择恰当的动词下义词,激发学生深度思考,推进教学环节的自然衔接。教师对小组学生的口头评价,则侧重于在写中和写后环节鼓励学生运用课堂所学技巧和调动自身词汇储备,对其进步予以肯定,增强学生英语学习的自信心。

单个学生对单个学生的口头评价,旨在培养学生的批判性思维,作文中动词的选用不应仅仅是上义词和下义词的简单替换,更是在咬文嚼字的过程中明确写作中的词汇的使用与写作意图及传情达意的密切联系。小组学生对单个学生的书面和口头评价,则是让学生通过修改同伴作文这一环节,进一步深入思考,亲身实践,发现同伴写作中的问题的过程也是反思自身写作如何提升的过程。单个学生对小组学生的口头评价,给予了学生更多的机会来进行同伴互助,相互学习,充分发挥班级授课制的优势,拓宽学生的思维广度,加深学生的思维深度。

三、     教学反思

总的来说,本课较好地达成了教师设定的教学目标,课堂的生成也较为符合有些甚至超越了教师的预设。有听课老师评价道,本节高三写作课,从教学实际出发设计教学目标及内容,旨在培养学生语言表达的意识和能力,突出动词在不同语境中的使用,引导学生思考、取舍、呈现。整节课教学设计环环相扣,课堂师生互动精彩有序。亮点在于peer review互评作文开放有趣,有利于调动参与积极性。在互动中激发学生的思考,在分享中迸发出灵感的火花。

当然,本课也有不少可改进之处。第一,在调动学生词汇储备的过程中,可多让不同的学生给出多种不同的答案,并让其说明所给答案的理由,给学生充分的发挥空间。这样可以让课堂中的主导互动形式进一步由师生互动转为生生互动,进一步激发学生思维的碰撞。其次,在学生修改同伴段落的时候,可进一步明确要求,让学生先对段落的作者写作意图进行思考,然后再在大方向明确的基础上,对该段落进行修改,以使本课的重点进一步突出,并让学生对写作中动词的选用的思考更有深度。此外,最后的学生佳作展示环节稍显仓促,让人有意犹未尽之感。在请学生朗读完之后,可全班稍作讨论,再次点明本课所教授动词选用的三个要素,自然地过渡到最终的全课总结收尾。

  

 

 

附录1

教案(初稿)

Lesson Plan

Action Verbs in Writing

1.       Lesson type: writing (mixed style: narrative + argumentation)

2.       Target students: 39 Senior Three students

3.       Teaching aims:

By the end of the lesson, the students will be able to:

1)       Differentiate between superordinates from subordinates in terms of verbs

2)       Apply subordinate action verbs in writing

3)       Appreciate the beauty of life

4.       Teaching difficulties: to activate students’ vocabulary of subordinate action verbs

5.       Teaching emphasis: to enable students to empower their writing with subordinate action verbs

6.       Teaching materials: multimedia, worksheet

7.       Teaching procedures:

Stages

Students Activities

Teacher activities

Purposes

I. Pre-writing

 

1. Read and discuss

(individual work)

Show two paragraphs and ask Ss to tell the difference

To arouse Ss’ awareness of superordinate and  subordinate action verbs in writing

2. Read and modify

(pair work)

Give ten sentences with superordinate verbs and ask Ss to work in pairs   to replace them with subordinate ones and check answers

To ensure Ss’ understanding of the differences between

superordinate and  subordinate   action verbs

 

3. Brainstorm and take notes

Encourage students to think of more common subordinate action verbs and   provide words for reference

To activate Ss’ vocabulary of subordinate action verbs

II. While-writing

 

1. Read and brainstorm

1. Give Ss a writing topic

To encourage Ss to apply subordinate action verbs in their own writing

2. Write one paragraph with the focus on subordinate action verbs

2. Have Ss write the first paragraph

III. Post-writing

 

1. Read and review other Ss’ paragraph by using the peer review form

1. Ask Ss to work in pairs and review each other’s writing

To consolidate their use of subordinate action verbs in writing;

To motivate peer learning;

To inspire Ss to appreciate beauty in life

2. Show the whole class the written paragraph and its review

2. Invite Ss to share with the whole class and make comments

 

 

附录2

教案(二稿)

Lesson Plan

Verbs in Writing

1.      Lesson type: writing

2.      Target students: 39 Senior Three students

3.      Teaching aims:

By the end of the lesson, the students will be able to:

1)     Differentiate between superordinates from subordinates in terms of verbs

2)     Apply subordinate action verbs in writing

3)     Appreciate the beauty of life

4.      Teaching difficulties: to activate students’ awareness of subordinate action verbs in writing

5.      Teaching emphasis: to empower students’ writing with subordinate action verbs

6.      Teaching materials: multimedia, worksheet

7.      Teaching procedures:

Stages

Students   Activities

Teacher   activities

Purposes

I. Pre-writing

 

1. Read and   discuss

(individual   work)

Show two   paragraphs and ask Ss to tell the difference

To arouse Ss’   awareness of superordinate and    subordinate action verbs in writing

2. Read and   choose

(pair work)

Give four pairs   of subordinate verbs in context and ask Ss to work in pairs to choose a   proper one.

To ensure Ss’   understanding of the usage of subordinate action verbs

3. Brainstorm   and take notes (class work)

Lead students to   polish a paragraph by replacing the subordinate verbs with proper subordinate   ones

To guide Ss   apply subordinate verbs in writing

II.   While-writing

 

1. Read and   review Ss articles with a focus on subordinate action verbs (pair work)

1. Have students   discuss and review others’ works

To encourage Ss   to apply subordinate action verbs in reviewing peers’ writing;

 

III.   Post-writing

 

1. Show the   whole class the reviewed passage and give a presentation (pair work)

2. Comment on   classmates’ work

1. Invite Ss to   share with the whole class and make comments

 

 

2. Give feedback

To consolidate   their use of subordinate action verbs in writing;

To motivate peer   learning;

To inspire Ss to   appreciate beauty in life

IV. Assignment:

Polish your own   article.

 

 

 

 

 

附录3

教案(终稿)

 

Verbs in Writing

Learning objectives:

By the end of the class, students will be able to

l  differentiate between superordinates from subordinates in terms of verbs;

l  apply subordinate verbs in writing;

l  appreciate the beauty of life.

 

Teaching emphasis &Difficult points: 

To activate students’ awareness of using subordinate action verbs in writing

 

Teaching procedures:

Stages

Purposes

 Activities

Evaluation

Pre-writing

To arouse Ss’   awareness of superordinate and subordinate verbs in writing

l  Show   two paragraphs

l  Give   four pairs of subordinate verbs in context

l  Polish   a paragraph

Students can   realize the art of using subordinate to express opinions and feelings in   context

 

 

While-writing

To encourage Ss   to apply subordinate verbs in reviewing peers’ writing

 

l  Read   and review a paragraph collaboratively

Students   can replace superordinate verbs with subordinate ones properly

 

 

 

Post-writing

To consolidate   Ss’ use of subordinate action verbs in writing;

To motivate peer   learning

 

l  Give a presentation   of the revised paragraph

l  Make comments on   peers’ presentation

Students can   explain the reasons for using certain subordinate verbs

Assignment

l  Polish   your own article

 


 

 

附录4

学案(一)

What Will You Do in April?

I.                Which paragraph is better? Why?

Freeman’s Spring

Spring   had come to the countryside unannounced.  Trees were changing the boring line   of farmhouses by showing their colors.    Full of the optimism that spring brings, Joe Freeman, jobless and   broke, thought that today was a perfect day to open the door of   opportunity.

 

 

 

Freeman’s Spring

Spring had burst   into the countryside unannounced.    Trees were interrupting the boring line of farmhouses by exhibiting   their colors.  Full of the optimism   that spring brings, Joe Freeman, jobless and broke, thought that today was a   perfect day to kick down the door of opportunity.

 

II.             Which word is better? Why?

1.      I invited all my relatives to my Mom’s birthday party.  However, with loads of work to do, I could only squeeze out one day to prepare for the party.  So I hurried/wandered about the house before everyone arrived. 

 

2.      Three members of the Amazon expedition lost their way a week ago.  When the police came to their rescue, they had already run out of food for two days.  Starved, they chewed/wolfed down the porridge () prepared by the rescue team.

 

3.      Technology and capital investment are propelling Brazil into the next millennium.  As it shifts/progresses from socialism to capitalism, the economy is dragging some reluctant Brazilians into the next millennium, while others are embracing the sweeping changes.

 

4.      When the household superstar showed up at the airport, the attention of the passengers was quickly drawn to her.  Tom was checking in his luggage when he noticed the excitement of the people around him.  He turned his head and glanced at/stared at the beloved celebrity.

 

 

 

III.           Polish the paragraph

Claire’s First Day at School

Claire looked quickly to her left, and then to her right.  Then, she walked quickly out and joined the crowd of students.  How many students were watching her?  Although she really wanted to look around, she looked straight ahead.  However, it seemed that none of her classmates looked at her while they walked quickly to their classes. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

IV.           Peer review

·       Group Presentation Tasks:

1)     1 student: read the revised paragraph (emotions)

2)     1 student: original good verbs and reasons (context/opinions/feelings)

3)     1 student: verbs replaced and reasons (context/opinions/feelings)

4)     Comments on other groups’ work:

»Highlights: your favourite verb and reasons (context/opinions/feelings)

»Suggestions: other vivid verbs and reasons (context/opinions/feelings)

 

In this April, which is full of sunshine and good weather, I want to find a rocking chair and read a book slowly. The work we have to do is hard and difficult every day and it makes us live in a small space like a cage. This cage will limit our thoughts and behavior and we might become a total ‘animal’ eventually. In this case, just having a rest and thinking about nothing will do good to us. During this rest, we don’t need to think about anything and just enjoy every minute of our life. Beside, we can think about what we have experienced through our life and some highlights will come to our mind again. We will also remember some meaningful things and helpful people in our life during this process, like the warm weather in April.

 

 

 

 

 

附录5

学案(二)

What Will You Do in April?

I.                Which paragraph is better? Why?

Freeman’s Spring

Spring   had come to the countryside unannounced.  Trees were changing the boring line   of farmhouses by showing their colors.    Full of the optimism that spring brings, Joe Freeman, jobless and   broke, thought that today was a perfect day to open the door of   opportunity.

 

 

 

Freeman’s Spring

Spring had burst   into the countryside unannounced.    Trees were interrupting the boring line of farmhouses by exhibiting   their colors.  Full of the optimism   that spring brings, Joe Freeman, jobless and broke, thought that today was a   perfect day to kick down the door of opportunity.

 

II.           Which word is better? Why?

1.      I invited all my relatives to my Mom’s birthday party.  However, with loads of work to do, I could only squeeze out one day to prepare for the party.  So I hurried/wandered about the house before everyone arrived. 

 

2.      Three members of the Amazon expedition lost their way a week ago.  When the police came to their rescue, they had already run out of food for two days.  Starved, they chewed/wolfed down the porridge () prepared by the rescue team.

 

3.      Technology and capital investment are propelling Brazil into the next millennium.  As it shifts/progresses from socialism to capitalism, the economy is dragging some reluctant Brazilians into the next millennium, while others are embracing the sweeping changes.

 

4.      When the household superstar showed up at the airport, the attention of the passengers was quickly drawn to her.  Tom was checking in his luggage when he noticed the excitement of the people around him.  He turned his head and glanced at/stared at the beloved celebrity.

 

 

 

III.           Polish the paragraph

Claire’s First Day at School

Claire looked quickly to her left, and then to her right.  Then, she walked quickly out and joined the crowd of students.  How many students were watching her?  Although she really wanted to look around, she looked straight ahead.  However, it seemed that none of her classmates looked at her while they walked quickly to their classes. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

IV.           Peer review

·       Presentation Tasks:

1)     1 student: read the revised paragraph (emotions)

2)     1 student: original good verbs and reasons (context/opinions/feelings)

3)     1 student: verbs replaced and reasons (context/opinions/feelings)

4)     Comments on other groups’ work:

»Highlights: your favourite verb and reasons (context/opinions/feelings)

»Suggestions: other vivid verbs and reasons (context/opinions/feelings)

 

The poet showed pictures of his dreaming life, including what I want to do.  In such a season full of vigour, I want to have an outing in the Thames Town.  We can share our snacks while sitting on the grass.  We can chase each other by bike. However, someone said that the poet who wrote this wonderful and hopeful poem ended his life on the rail and that we should not think that our world is a very good one.  In my perspective, there are a host of difficulties and setbacks in the world, and what we should do is not to escape from it, but face them bravely.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

附录6

学生当堂互评展示成果

                                                   desire

In this April, which is full of sunshine and good weather, I want to find a rocking chair

complete                                                      forces

and read a book slowly. The work we have to do is hard and difficult every day and it makes

us to be stranded                                                        trap

us live in a small space like a cage. This cage will limit our thoughts and behavior and we

clearing our

might become a total ‘animal’ eventually. In this case, just having a rest and thinking about

mind                                                                      can just leave all the troubles behind

nothing will do good to us. During this rest, we don’t need to think about anything and just

                                                                look back upon out past experiences

enjoy every minute of our life. Beside, we can think about what we have experienced through

                                 spring up like mushrooms in  our mind       engrave

our life and some highlights will come to our mind again. We will also remember some

 

meaningful things and helpful people in our life during this process, like the warm weather in

 

April.

 

                pictured                                                                 long  for

The poet showed pictures of his dreaming life, including what I want to do.  In such a

                                       desire to enjoy

season full of vigour, I want to have an outing in the Thames Town.  We can share our snacks

           resting                                                                                                           suggested

while sitting on the grass.  We can chase each other by bike. However, someone said that the

                 created                                                     took his own life

poet who wrote this wonderful and hopeful poem ended his life on the rail and that we should

       regard                     as

not think that our world is a very good one.  In my perspective, there are a host of difficulties

                                                                                                         embrace

and setbacks in the world, and what we should do is not to escape from it, but face them

 

bravely.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

附录7

学生佳作展示

 

         Spring comes without knocking at my door. It blows the buds into blossoms quietly and gently dresses the trees in green. When we come to realize its short visit, it’s fully ready to entertain us with the ocean of flowers. As April is approaching, I can't help staring out of my window, in the hope that my sight can fly across the Pacific and glance at the cherry blossoms on a different land.

          In the sunlight of April, my father is always blessed with a chance to attend an annual business meeting in Japan. The postcards and photos he sends me usually can serve as temporary satisfaction for me, but my faint impression on the cherry blossoms there is in a sharp contrast to my intense desire for their marvelous beauty. In fact, my impression is gradually fading like a tune whistling through the air. I can hear snatches of it, but when I long to move by its melody, it always eludes my grasp.

         Then it hits me like tons of bricks that I can never be so irresponsible to ignore my study and play to my heart’s content. But now I begin to understand that as long as my father keeps sending me postcards and cherry blossoms are willing to present their flawless beauty in April, there is love and beauty in my life that I should be grateful to. It’s not the cherry blossoms that make my April holiday special, but the unconditional love from my family that makes every day an April holiday for me.

 

 

 

 

 



版权所有:上海市徐汇区教育局 地址:上海市漕溪北路336号
邮编:200030 电话:64872222 E-MAIL:administrator@xhedu.sh.cn
建议使用IE5.0以上浏览器 建议采用1024*768的分辨率