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四级阅读训练

作者/来源:徐汇教师进修学院  周珽    发布时间:2005-08-23

Part Reading Comprehension

1.   Passage One

Unless we spend money to spot and prevent asteroids(小行星)nowone might crash into Earth and destroy life as we know itsay some scientists.

Asteroids are bigger versions of the meteoroids(流星)that race across the night sky.Most orbit the sun far from Earth and don't threaten us.But there are also thousands whose orbits put them on a collision course with Earth.

Buy $ 50 million worth of new telescopes right now.Then spend $ 10 million a year for the next 25 years to locate most of the space rocks.By the time we spot a fatal onethe scientists saywe'll have a way to change its course.

Some scientists favor pushing asteroids off course with nuclear weapons.But the cost wouldn't be cheap.

Is it worth it? Two things experts consider when judging any risk are: 1) How likely the event is; and 2) How bad the consequences if the event occurs. Experts think an asteroid big enough to destroy lots of life might strike Earth once every 500000 years. Sounds pretty rare-but if one did fallit would be the end of the world.If we don't take care of these big asteroidsthey'll take care of us,”says one scientist.It's that simple.”

The curethoughmight be worse than the disease. Do we really want fleets of nuclear weapons sitting around on Earth?The world has less to fear from

doomsday(毁灭性的) rocks than from a great nuclear fleet set against them” said a New York Times article.

21. What does the passage say about asteroids and meteoroids?

A) They are heavenly bodies different in composition.

B) They are heavenly bodies similar in nature.

C) There are more asteroids than meteoroids.

D) Asteroids are more mysterious than meteoroids.

[答案及分析]:[B]文章第二段第一句明确指出“小行星和划破夜空的流星是性质一样的物质,只是体积大些。”解题的关键是对version的理解。

22. What do scientists say about the collision of an asteroid with Earth?

A) It is very unlikely but the danger exists.

B) Such a collision might occur once every 25 years.

C) Collisions of smaller asteroids with Earth occur more often than expected.

D) It's still too early to say whether such a collision might occur..

[答案及分析]:[A]文章倒数第二段对小行星撞击地球的可能性作出了很形象的描述,每50万年才可能有一次,但一旦发生,将是地球末日。

23. What do people think of the suggestion of using nuclear weapons to alter the

course of asteroids?

A) It sounds practical but it may not solve the problem.

B) It may create more problems than it might solve.

C) It is a waste of money because a collision of asteroids with Earth is very

unlikely.

D) Further research should be done before it is proved applicable.

[答案及分析]:[B]文章最后一段道出了人们的担忧。正如纽约时报的一篇文章所言:“人们对巨石的担心,还不如对用以对付它们的巨型核舰队的担心更甚。”

24. We can conclude from the passage that .

A) while pushing asteroids off course nuclear weapons would destroy the world

B) asteroids racing across the night sky are likely to hit Earth in the near future

C) the worry about asteroids can be left to future generations since it is unlikely

to happen in our lifetime

D) workable solutions still have to be found to prevent a collision of asteroids

with Earth.

[答案及分析]:[D]本文虽然提到了用核武器对付小行星的建议,但同时指出人们对这种解决方法担心重重,可见,可行的解决方法仍在寻找之中。

25. Which of the following best describes the author's tone in this pass age?

A) Optimistic. B) Critical. C) Objective. D) Arbitrary.

[答案及分析]:[C]本文在引述观点及例证时,用了不少间接引语或直接引语,说明出处或原述者。可见本文是一篇对事实情况的客观报道。

 

 

2.   Passage Two

Believe it or notoptical illusion (错觉) can cut highway crashes.Japan is a case in point.It has reduced automobile crashes on some roads by nearly 75 percent using a simple optical illusion.Bent stripescalled chevrons (人字形)painted on the roads make drivers think that they are d riving faster than they really areand thus drivers slow down.Now the American Association Foundation for Traffic Safety in Washington D.C.is planning to rep eat Japan's success.Starting next year,the foundation will paint chevrons and other patterns of stripes on selected roads around the country to test how well the patterns reduce highway crashes.Excessive speed plays a major role role in as much as one fifth of all fatal traffic accidents,according to the foundation .To help reduce those accidentsthe foundation will conduct its tests in areas where speed - related hazards are the greatest - curvesexit slopestraffic circlesand bridges.Some studies suggest that straighthorizontal bars painted across roads can initially cut the average speed of drivers in half.Howevertraffic often returns to full speed within months as drivers become used to seeing the painted bar.Chevronsscientists saynot only give drivers the impress ion that they are driving faster than they really are but also make a lane appear to be narrower.The result is a longer lasting reduction in highway speed and the number of traffic accidents.

 

26. The passage mainly discusses .

A) a new way of highway speed control

B) a new pattern for painting highways

C) a new approach to training drivers

D) a new type of optical illusion

[答案及分析]:[A]通读全文可知本文主旨是:如何通过在路面上涂上类似“人字形”的标志来降低车速以减少交通事故。

27. On roads painted with chevrons drivers tend to feel that.

A) they should avoid speed - related hazards

B) they are driving in the wrong lane

C) they should slow down their speed

D) they are approaching the speed limit

[答案及分析]:[C]文章第二段第二句说“在路面上涂了人字形线,司机会觉得车速会比实际的快些,于是不自觉的降低车速”。

28. The advantage of chevrons over straighthorizontal bars is that the former .

A) can keep drivers awake

B) can cut road accidents in half

C) will have a longer effect on drivers

D) will look more attractive

[答案及分析]:[C]本文倒数第二段指出水平线相对于人字形的缺点是:司机很快就会适应水平线,而又提高车速。

29. The American Association Foundation for Traffic Safety plans to .

A) try out the Japanese method in certain areas

B) change the road signs across the country

C) replace straighthorizontal bars with chevrons

D) repeat the Japanese road patterns

[答案及分析]:[A]本文第二段说美国汽车协会计划效仿日本的成功实践,及在全国选择一些路面涂上人字形及其它符号,以测试它们是否能减少交通事故。

30. What does the author say about straighthorizontal bars painted acr oss roads?

A) They are falling out of use in the United States.

B) They tend to be ignored by drivers in a short period of time.

C) They are applicable only on broad roads.

D) They cannot be applied successfully to traffic circles..

[答案及分析]:[B]该题实际上是第28题的重复,只是换了一个问法,通过阅读文章倒数第二段便知水平直线会在较短的时间内失去效用。

 

 

 

3.   Passage Three

Amtrak(美国铁路客运公司)was experiencing a downswing in riders hip (客运量)along the lines comprising its rail system.Of major concern t o Amtrak and its advertising agency DDB Needhamwere the long - distance wester n routes where ridership had been declining significantly.

At one timetrains w ere the only practical way to cross the vast areas of the west.Trains were fastvery luxuriousand quite convenient compared to other forms of transportation existing at the time.Howevertimes change and the automobile became America's standard of convenience.Alsoair travel had easily established itself as the fastest method of traveling great distances .Thereforethe task for DDB Needham was to encourage consumers to consider other aspects of train travel in order t o change their attitudes and increase the likelihood that trains would be considered for travel in the west.

Two portions of the total market were targeted: 1) anxious fliers - those concerned with safetyrelaxationand cleanliness and 2) travel - lovers - those viewing themselves as relaxedcasualand interested in the travel experience as part of their vacation.The agency then developed a campaign that focused on travel experiences such as freedomescaperelaxationand enjoyment of the great western outdoors.It stressed experiences gained by u sing the trains and portrayed western train trips as wonderful adventures.

Advertisements showed pictures of the beautiful scenery that could be enjoyed along s ome of the more famous western routes and emphasized the romantic names of some of these trains(Empire Builderetc.).These ads were strategically placed among family - oriented TV shows and programs involving nature and America in order t o most effectively reach target audiences. Results were impressive. The Empire Builder.Which was focused on in one ad.enjoyed a 15 percent increase in profits on its Chicago to Seattle route.

 

31. What's the author's purpose in writing this passage?

A) To show the inability of trains to compete with planes with respect to speed

and convenience.

B) To stress the influence of the automobile on America's standard of convenience.

C) To emphasize the function of travel agencies in market promotion.

D) To illustrate the important role of persuasive communication in changing consumer attitudes.

[答案及分析]:[D]通读全文可知作者写这篇文章的实际目的是;以美国铁路客运公司的广告代理商的成功经验为例,指出如何通过有针对性的、有技巧的广告战来说服消费者,以提高利润。

32. It can be inferred from the passage that the drop in Amtrak ridership was due to

the fact that ______ .

A) trains were not suitable for short distance passenger transportation

B) trains were not the fastest and most convenient form of transportation

C) trains were not as fast and convenient as they used to be

D) trains could not compete with planes in terms of luxury and convenience

[答案及分析]:[B]文章第二段具体讲了铁路客运量下降的原因,主要是两点:一是汽车成为美国最方便的交通工具;二是航空成为远距离旅行最快捷的方式。在这两方面铁路都较为逊色。

33. To encourage consumers to travel by trainDDB Needham emphasized ______ .

A) the freedom and convenience provided on trains

B) the practical aspects of travel

C) the adventurous aspects of train trips

D) the safety and cleanliness of train trips

[答案及分析]:[D]尼德汉广告公司在鼓励人们在乘座火车时,把市场重点放在两种人身上:①为了安全、清洁等原因不愿意坐飞机的人;②把乘火车旅行作为休假一部分的旅游爱好者。因此,答案D是该公司所强调的一部分内容。

34. The train ads were placed among family - oriented TV programs involving nature

and America because ______ .

A) they could focus on meaningful travel experiences

B) they could increase the effectiveness of the TV programs

C) their profits could be increased by some 15 percent

D) most travel - lovers and nervous fliers were believed to be among the audiences

[答案及分析]:[D]本文最后一段的第二句话说:火车广告被放在以家庭为对象的电视节目里,目的是为了能够最有效的把信息传递经市场目标,及上述的两种人。

35. According to the passagethe Empire Builder enjoyed an increase in ridership and profits because ______ .

A) the attractiveness of its name and route was effectively advertised

B) it provided an exciting travel experience

C) its passengers could enjoy the great western outdoors

D) it was widely advertised in newspapers and magazines in Chicago and Seattle

[答案及分析]:[A]文章最后一段分析了“王国建筑者”大大提高铁路客运量的原因,有两点:一是它有能吸引乘客的浪漫的名字;二是它是市场目标中得到有效的推广。

 

 

 

 

 

4.   Passage Four

Why does cream go bad faster than butter? Some researchers think they the answerand it comes down to the structure of the foodnot its chemical composition - a finding that could help rid some processed foods of chemical preservatives.C ream and butter contain pretty much the same substancesso why cream should sour much faster has been a mystery.Both are emulsions - tiny globules(小球)of one liquid evenly distributed throughout another.The difference lies in what's in the globules and what's in the surrounding liquidsays Brocklehurstwho led the investigation.In creamfatty globules and what's in the surrounding liquidsays Brocklehurstwho led the investigation.In creamfatty globules drift about in a sea of water.In butterglobules of a watery solution are locked away in a sea of fat.The bacteria which make the food go bad prefer to live in the watery regions of the mixture.This means that in creamthe bacteria are free to grow throughout the mixture,”he says.When the situation is reversedthe bacteria are locked away in compartments (密封仓) buried deep in the sea of fat.Trapped in this wayindividual colonies cannot spread and rapidly run out of nutrients.They also slowly poison themselves with their waste products.In butteryou get a self - limiting system which stops the bacteria growing,”says Brocklehurst.

The researchers are already working with food companies keen to see if their products can be made resistant to bacterial attack through alterations to the food's structure.Brocklehurst believes it will be possible to make the emulsions used in salad creamfor instancemore like that in butter.The key will be to do this while keeping the salad cream liquid and not turning it into a solid lump.

36. The significance of Brocklehurst's research is that ______ .

A) it suggested a way to keep some foods fresh without preservatives

B) it discovered tiny globules in both cream and butter

C) it revealed the secret of how bacteria multiply in cream and butter

D) it found that cream and butter share the same chemical composition

[答案及分析]:[A]文章第一段破折号后说明了这位科学家的研究意义在于;能够帮助在加工一些食品过程去除化学防腐剂。

37. According to the researchers.cream sours faster than butter because bacteria_____ .

A) are more evenly distributed in cream

B) multiply more easily in cream than is butter

C) live on less fat in cream than in butter

D) produce less waste in cream than in butter

[答案及分析]:[B]文章第二段具体阐明了奶酪和牛油在结构上的区别。在段尾这位科学家说:“这就意味着奶酪里细菌能够在整个混合物里更自由的生长。”

38. According to Brocklehurstwe can keep cream fresh by ______ .

A) removing its fat B) killing the bacteria

C) reducing its water content D) altering its structure

[答案及分析]:[D]文章一开头就指出奶酪和牛油化学成份相同,奶酪更易变质是在于它们结构上的区别。而这位科学家的研究是通过改变奶酪的结构保持它的新鲜。

39. The wordcolonies(Line 2Para.4) refers to ______ .

A) tiny globules B) watery regions

C) bacteria communities D) little compartments

[答案及分析]:[C]在这篇文章里。colonies的意思是“细菌群”。

40. Commercial application of the research finding will be possible if salad cream

can be made resistant to bacterial attack ______ .

A) by varying its chemical composition B) by turning it into a solid lump

C) while keeping its structure unchanged D) while retaining its liquid form

[答案及分析]:[D]本文最后一段补充说,把这项研究发现用于商业,关键在于如何使奶酪在保鲜的同时保持液体状态,而不凝结成固体。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5.    Passage One

Long after the 1998 World Cup was won, disappointed fans were still cursing the

disputed refereeing (裁判) decisions that denied victory to their team. A researcher was appointed to study the performance of some top referees.

The researcher organized an experimental tournament (锦标赛) involving four youth teams. Each match lasted an hour, divided into three periods of 20 minutes during which different referees were in charge.

Observers noted down the referees' errors, of which there were 61 over the tournament. Converted to a standard match of 90 minutes, each referee made almost 23

mistakes, a remarkably high number.

The researcher then studied the videotapes to analyse the matches in detail. Surprisingly, he found that errors were more likely when the referees were close to the incident. When the officials got it right, they were, on average, 17 meters away from the action. The average distance in the case of errors was 12 meters.The research shows the optimum (最佳的) distance is about 20 meters.

There also seemed to be an optimum speed. Correct decisions came when the referees were moving at a speed of about 2 meters per second. The average speed for errors was 4 meters per second.

If FIFA, football's international ruling body, wants to improve the standard of

refereeing at the next World Cup, it should encourage referees to keep their eyes on the action from a distance, rather than rushing to keep up with the ball,the researcher argues.

He also says that FIFA's insistence that referees should retire at age 45 may be

misguided. If keeping up with the action is not so important, their physical condition is less critical.

 

51. The experiment conducted by the researcher was meant to _______.

A) review the decisions of referees at the 1998 World Cup

B) analyse the causes of errors made by football referees

C) set a standard for football refereeing

D) reexamine the rules for football refereeing.

[答案及分析]B。题目问的是研究人员的实验目的是什么。根据第一段可知,98年世界杯因裁判失误而造成许多胜败的逆转,此次研究就是为了分析造成裁判失误的原因是什么。

52. The number of refereeing errors in the experimental matches was _______.

A) slightly above average B) higher than in the 1998 World Cup

C) quite unexpected D) as high as in a standard match

[答案及分析]C。从第三段可知,实验结果表明90分钟比赛中平均每个裁判犯错23次,这是相当高的数字。可见,裁判犯错的次数是出乎意料的。

53. The findings of the experiment show that _______.

A) errors are more likely when a referee keeps close to the ball

B) the farther the referee is from the incident, the fewer the errors

C) the more slowly the referee runs, the more likely will errors occur

D) errors are less likely when a referee stays in one spot

[答案及分析]A。该题可采取排除法来解题。从文章的第四段第二句可知,裁判离球越近就越容易犯错。

54. The word "officials" (Line 2, Para. 4) most probably refers to _______.

A) the researchers involved in the experiment

B) the inspectors of the football tournament

C) the referees of the football tournament

D) the observers at the site of the experiment

[答案及分析]C。这句话的意思是:当这些官员判断正确时,他们通常在离球员行为地点17米处。可见officials指的是足球比赛的裁判。

55. What is one of the possible conclusions of the experiment?

A) The ideal retirement age for an experienced football referee is 45.

B) Age should not be the chief consideration in choosing a football referee.

C) A football referee should be as young and energetic as possible.

D) An experienced football referee can do well even when in poor physical condition.

[答案及分析]B。从最后一段可知,研究人员认为裁判45岁就要退休的决定是不对的。由于并不需要紧跟球员行动,那么身体状况就没那么重要。因此B的答案是正确的。

6.    Passage Two

While still in its early stages, welfare reform has already been judged a great success in many states ?a at least in getting people off welfare. It's estimated that more than 2 million people have left the rolls since 1994. In the past four years, welfare rolls in Athens County have been cut in half. But 70 percent of the people who left in the past two years took jobs that paid less than $6 an hour. The result: The Athens County poverty rate still remains at more than 30 percent--twice the national average. For advocates (代言人)for the poor, that's an indication much more needs to be done. "More people are getting jobs, but it's not making their lives any better," says Kathy Lairna policy analyst at the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities in Washington. A center analysis of US Census data nationwide found that between 1995 and 1996, a greater percentage of single, femalea2headed households were earning money on their own, but that average income for these households actually went down. but for many, the fact that poor people are able to support themselves almost as well without government aid as they did with it is in itself a huge victory. "Welfare was a poison. It was a toxin (毒素) that was poisoning the family," says Robert Rector, a welfarea2reform policy analyst. "The reform is changing the moral climate in lowa2income communities. It's beginning to rebuild the work ethic (道德观)which is much more important." Mr. Rector and others argued that once "the habit of dependency is cracked," then the country can make other policy changes aimed at improving living standards.

56. From the passage, it can be seen that the author _______.

A) believes the reform has reduced the government's burden

B) insists that welfare reform is doing little good for the poor

C) is overenthusiastic about the success of welfare reform

D) considers welfare reform to be fundamentally successful

[答案及分析]A。从第一段可知,作者认为福利改革至少使许多人不再靠救济吃饭,这显然减轻了政府的负担。但改革是否非常成功,或对穷人有无帮助,作者没有表达自己的观点。

57. Why aren't people enjoying better lives when they have jobs?

A) Because many families are divorced.

B) Because government aid is now rare.

C) Because their wages are low.

D) Because the cost of living is rising.

[答案及分析]C。文章第二、三、四段告诉我们,虽然人们找到工作,但收入少了,还不如靠救济宽松。

58. What is worth noting from the example of Athens County is that _______.

A) greater efforts should be made to improve people's living standards

B) 70 percent of the people there have been employed for two years

C) 50 percent of the population no longer relies on welfare

D) the living standards of most people are going down

[答案及分析]A。第二、三段说:雅典镇的贫困率超过30%,是全国的一倍,这表明还需要做很多工作来改善那里人们的生活水平。

59. From the passage we know that welfare reform aims at _______.

A) saving welfare funds

B) rebuilding the work ethic

C) providing more jobs

D) cutting government expenses

[答案及分析]B。文章的三段讲的是支持福利改革人士的观点,他们认为救济对人们的道德观念是有害的,改革会重建工作观念,这更重要。依赖的思想被打破后,国家才能制定政策来提高人民的生活水平。

60. According to the passage, before the welfare reform was carried out, _______.

A) the poverty rate was lower

B) average living standards were higher

C) the average worker was paid higher wages

D) the poor used to rely on government aid

[答案及分析]D。从倡导改革人士可知,过去穷人过分依赖救济,既增加了政府负担,又滋生懒惰情绪。

 

 

 

 

 

7.   Passage Three

Americans are proud of their variety and individuality, yet they love and respect few things more than a uniform, whether it is the uniform of an elevator operator or the uniform of a five-star general. Why are uniforms so popular in the United States?

Among the arguments for uniforms, one of the first is that in the eyes of most people they look more professional than civilian (百姓的) Clothes. People have be come conditioned to expect superior quality from a man who wears a uniform. The television repairman who wears a uniform tends to inspire more trust than one who appears in civilian clothes. Faith in the skill of a garage mechanic is increased by a uniform. What easier way is there for a nurse, a policeman, a barber, or a waiter to lose professional identity(身份) than to step out of uniform?

Uniforms also have many practical benefits. They save on other clothes. They save on laundry bills. They are tax-deductible(可减税的). They are often more comfortable and more durable than civilian clothes.

Primary among the arguments against uniforms is their lack of variety and the consequent loss of individuality experienced by people who must wear them. Though there are many types of uniforms, the wearer of any particular type is generally stuck with it, without change, until retirement. When people look alike, they tend to think, speak, and act similarly, on the job at least.

Uniforms also give rise to some practical problems. Though they are long-lasting, often their initial expense is greater than the cost of civilian clothes. Some uniforms are also expensive to maintain, requiring professional dry cleaning rather than the home laundering possible with many types of civilian clothes.

 

61. It is surprising that Americans who worship variety and individuality _______.

A) still judge a man by his clothes

B) hold the uniform in such high regard

C) enjoy having a professional identity

D) will respect an elevator operator as much as a general in uniform

[答案及分析]B。第一段讲美国人崇尚多元和个性,但却喜爱和尊敬制服,这的确令人惊讶。

62. People are accustomed to think that a man in uniform _______.

A) suggests quality work

B) discards his social identity

C) appears to be more practical

D) looks superior to a person in civilian clothes

[答案及分析]A。第二段和第三段解释了美国人喜爱制服的原因,主要是工作人员穿上制服就代表专业水准和高标准,容易得到人们的信任。

63. The chief function of a uniform is to _______.

A) provide practical benefits to the wearer

B) make the wearer catch the public eye

C) inspire the wearer's confidence in himself

D) provide the wearer with a professional identity

[答案及分析]D。从第二段最后一句话可知,制服的主要作用就是为穿着者提供一个职业或专业的身份。

64. According to the passage, people wearing uniforms _______.

A) are usually helpful

B) have little or no individual freedom

C) tend to lose their individuality

D) enjoy greater popularity

[答案及分析]C。文章后两段主要说对制服持反对意见的人的观点,这些人主要是穿制服的人群。他们认为制服使他们缺少变化,因而没有个性。

65. The best title for this passage would be _______.

A) Uniforms and Society

B) The Importance of Wearing a Uniform

C) Practical Benefits of Wearing a Uniform

D) Advantages and Disadvantages of Uniforms

[答案及分析]D。文章既讲述了人们对制服的喜爱及其好处,又提到了相反的观点,认为制服缺乏个性和变化。因此,只有D的答案全面概括了文章的意思。

 

8.   Passage Four

Since we are social beings, the quality of our lives depends in large measure on our interpersonal relationships. One strength of the human condition is our tendency to give and receive support from one another under stressful circumstances. Social support consists of the exchange of resources among people based on their interpersonal ties.

Those of us with strong support systems appear better able to cope with major life

changes and daily hassles(困难). People with strong social ties live longer and have better health than those without such ties. Studies over a range of illnesses, from depression to heart disease, reveal that the presence of social support helps people fend off(挡开) illness, and the absence of such support makes poor health more likely.

Social support cushions stress in a number of ways. First, friends, relatives, and co-workers may let us know that they value us. Our self-respect is strengthened when we feel accepted by others despite our faults and difficulties. Second, other people often provide us with informational support. They help us to define and understand our problems and find solutions to them. Third, we typically find social companionship supportive. Engaging in leisure-time activities with others helps us to meet our social needs while at the same time distracting(转移...注意力)us from our worries and troubles. Finally, other people may give us instrumental support-financial aid, material resources, and needed services -- that reduces stress by helping us resolve and cope with our problems.

 

66. Interpersonal relationships are important because _______.

A) they are indispensable to people's social weel-being

B) they waken people's desire to exchange resources

C) they help people to cope with life in the information era

D) they can cure a range of illnesses such as heart disease, etc.

[答案及分析]A。本文第一句说:我们的生活质量在很大程度上取决于我们的人际关系。可见,人际关系之所以重要,是因为它是我们生活是否幸福不可缺少的因素。

67. Research shows that people's physical and mental health _______.

A) relies on the social welfare systems which support them

B) has much to do with the amount of support they get from others

C) depends on their ability to deal with daily worries and troubles

D)is closely related to their strength for coping with major changes in their lives

[答案及分析]B。文章第一段充分阐述了人们的身心是否健康与得到他人支持关系非常密切。人们得到他人的支持越多,就越多对付困难,支持越少,就越有可能患病。

68. Which of the following is closest in meaning to the word"cushions"(Line 1, Para.2)?

A) Adds up to. B) Does away with.

C) Lessens the effect of. D) Lays the foundation for.

 [答案及分析]C。“cushion”做动词,本意是“加垫于”,有“缓冲、减压”之意。而这句话的意思是;社会的支持以许多方式来减轻压力。

69. Helping a sick neighbor with some repair work is an example of _______.

A) instrumental support B) informational support

C) social companionship D) the strengthening of self-respect

[答案及分析]A。第二段讲了许多社会支持如何帮助人们。如:亲友让我们知道他们在乎我们,增强了我们的自信心;亲友为我们提供信息的帮助;亲友的陪伴对我们尤为重要;亲友还为我们提供资金、物质服务等方面的instrumental support。题目讲帮主病的邻居修东西,显然是instrumental support

70. Social companionship is beneficial in that _______.

A) it helps strengthen our ties with relatives

B) it enables us to eliminate our faults and mistakes

C) it makes our leisure-time activities more enjoyable

D) it draws our attention away from our worries and troubles

[答案及分析]D。文章倒数第二句话说:与他们一起享受闲暇时光可以使我们的注意力从烦恼和困难中摆脱出来。

 

 

 

 

 

9.   Passage One

Dogs are social animals and without proper training, they will be have like wild animals. They will spoil your house, destroy your belongings, bark excessively, fight other dogs and even bite you. Nearly all behavior problems are perfectly normal dog activities that occur at the wrong time or place or are directed at the wrong thing. The key to preventing or treating behavior problems is learning to teach the dog to redirect its normal behavior to outlets that are acceptable in the domestic setting.\;One of the best things you can do for your dog and yourself is to obedience train (驯服) it. Obedience training doesn't solve all behavior problems, but it is the foundation for solving just about any problem. Training opens up a line of communication between you and your dog. Effective communication is necessary to instruct your dog about what you want it to do.\;Training is also an easy way to establish the social rank order. When your dog obeys a simple request of come here, sit, it is showing obedience and respect for you. It is not necessary to establish yourself as top dog or leader of the dog pack () by using extreme measures. You can teach your dog its subordinate (从属的) role by teaching it to show submission to you. Most dogs love performing tricks for you to pleasantly accept that you are in charge.\;Training should be fun and rewarding for you and your dog. It can enrich your relationship and make living together more enjoyable. A well-trained dog is more confident and can more safely be allowed a greater amount of freedom than an untrained animal.

21. Behavior problems of dogs are believed to .

A worsen in modern society

B occur when they go wild

C be just part of their nature

D present a threat to the community

[答案与分析]C.本题答案可由第一段第三句的主句部分得出,不要受定语从句的干扰。

22. The primary purpose of obedience training is to .

A teach the dog to perform clever tricks

B provide the dog with outlets for its wild behavior

C make the dog aware to its owner's authority

D enable the dog to regain its normal behavior

[答案与分析]C.文中似乎对此题未给出明确答案,但从obedience这个词本身能推断出来,也可从establish the social rank order(建立社交等秩序)by teaching it to show submission to you(通过教育他对你表示顺从)等词语中推断出obedience training的目的。

23. Effective communication between a dog and its owner is .

A essential to solving the dog's behavior problems

Ba good way to teach the dog new tricks

C the foundation for dogs to perform tasks

D an extreme measure in obedience training

[答案与分析]C.此题令考生在CD之间难以作出选择,但我们如果将第二段最后一句的意思看明白,而不被foundation,necessaryessential干扰的话,就容易确定。

24. Why do pet dogs love performing tricks for their masters?

A To show their willingness to obey.

B To avoid being punished.

C To win leadership of the dog pack.

D To show their affection for their masters.

[答案与分析]A.此题较简单,从第三段最后一句就可以得出结论,值得注意的是不要将for you to pleasantly accept作为一个复合不定式看,这里的you并不是accept的逻辑主语。

25. When a dog has received effective obedience training, its owner .

 

Acan give the dog more freedom

B will enjoy a better family life

Ccan give the dog more rewards

D will have more confidence in himself

[答案与分析]C.此题从第四段最后一句可得出正确的答案。

 

 

 

10.   Passage Two

Engineering students are supposed to be examples of practicality and rationality , but when it comes to my college education I am an idealist and a fool. In high school I wanted to be an electrical engineer and, of course, any sensible student with my aims would have chosen a college with a large engineering department, famous reputation and lots of good labs and research equipment. But that's not what I did.

I chose to study engineering at a small liberal-arts(文科) university that doesn't even offer a major in electrical engineering. Obviously, this was not a practical choice; I came here for more noble reasons. I wanted a broad education that would provide me with flexibility and a value system to guide me in my career. I wanted to open my eyes and expand my vision by interacting with people who weren't studying science or engineering. My parents, teachers and other adults praised me for such a sensible choice. They told me I was wise and mature beyond my 18 years, and I believed them.

I headed off to college sure I was going to have an advantage over those students who went to big engineering factories where they didn't care if you had values or were flexible. I was going to be a complete engineer: technical genius and sensitive humanist(人文学者) all in one.

Now I'm not so sure. Somewhere along the way my noble ideals crashed into reality, as all noble ideals eventually do. After three years of struggling to balance

maths, physics and engineering courses with liberal-arts courses, I have learned there are reasons why few engineering students try to reconcile (协调) engineering with liberal-arts courses in college.

The reality that has blocked my path to becoming the typical successful student is that engineering and the liberal arts simply don't mix as easily as I assumed in high school. Individually they shape a person in very different ways; together they threaten to confuse. The struggle to reconcile the two fields of study is difficult. 26. The author chose to study engineering at a small liberalarts university because he .

A wanted to be an example of practicality and rationality

B wanted to coordinate engineering with liberal-arts courses in college

C intended to be a combination of engineer and humanist

D intended to be a sensible student with noble ideals

[答案与分析]C.从第二段可以推断出该题的答案,第三段最后一句就更明确了。

27. According to the author, by interacting with people who study liberal arts, engineering students can .

A broaden their horizons

B receive guidance in their careers

C become noble idealists

D balance engineering and the liberal arts

[答案与分析]A.此题的关键是理解broaden their horizons的含义,短语为“开阔眼界、视野”的意思。Horizons不是“地平线”,而是“视野、经验、兴趣、知识等的限度、范围”此处为“眼界”,也就是“扩大知识在”的意思。注意该题容易误选D, balance engineering and the liberal arts是“手段”而非“目的”。

28. In the eyes of the author, a successful engineering student is expected.

A to have an excellent academic record

B to be a technical genius with a wide vision

C to be imaginative with a value system to guide him

D to be wise and mature

[答案与分析]B 。此题的答案也可以从第三段最后一句去推断,加上对第五段的第一句,就更明确了。

29. The author's experience shows that he was .

A creative

B ambitious

Cirrational

Dunrealistic

[答案与分析]D 。第四段第一句与第二句把答案明确地告诉了我们。

30. The word they in ... together they threaten to confuse. (Line 3, Para. 5) refers to .

A reality and noble ideals

B engineering and the liberal arts

C flexibility and a value system

D practicality and rationality

[答案与分析]B 此句的指代关系很明确,考生一般都不会弄错。

11.   Passage Three

Priscilla Ouchida's energy-efficient house turned out to be a horrible dream. When she and her engineer husband married a few years ago, they built a $100,000, three-bedroom home in California. Tightly sealed to prevent air leaks, the house was equipped with small double-paned(双层玻璃的) windows and several other energy-saving features. Problems began as soon as the couple moved in, however. Priscilla's eyes burned. Her throat was constantly dry. She suffer ed from headaches and could hardly sleep. It was as though she had suddenly developed a strange illness.

Experts finally traced the cause of her illness. The level of formaldehyde(甲醛) gas in her kitchen was twice the maximum allowed by federal standards for chemical workers. The source of the gas? Her new kitchen cabinets and wall-to-wall carpeting.

The Ouchidas are victims of indoor air pollution, which is not given sufficient attention partly because of the nation's drive to save energy. The problem itself isn't new. The indoor environment was dirty long before energy conservation came along, says Moschandreas, a pollution scientist at Geomet Technologies in Maryland. Energy conservation has tended to accentuate the situation in some cases.

 The problem appears to be more troublesome in newly constructed homes rather than old ones. Back in the days when energy was cheap, home builders didn't worry much about unsealed cracks. Because of such leaks, the air in an average home was replaced by fresh outdoor air about once an hour. As a result, the pollutants generated in most households seldom built up to dangerous levels.

 

31. It can be learned from the passage that the Ouchidas' house.

A is well worth the money spent on its construction

B was designed and constructed in a scientific way

C failed to meet energy conservation standards

Dis almost faultless from the point of energy conservation

[答案与分析]D 第一段第三句对Ouchida的房子装修作了描述,当然是faultless(完美无缺的)

32. What made the Ouchidas' new house a horrible dream?

A Because Lack of fresh air.

B Poor quality of building materials.

C Gas leakage in the kitchen.

D The newly painted walls

[答案与分析]A 此题要从文章最末两句寻找答案,主要需了解此文的结构,它先说Ouchida的房子是个“噩梦”,到最后才说出“噩梦”的原因。

33. The word accentuate(Line 4, Para. 3) most probably means “”.

A worsen

B accelerate

C relieve

D improve

 [答案与分析]A 。能猜出新词语的意义是阅读必不可少的一项基本技能,猜测不能脱离上下文。此题前面已说在“节能”运动发起之前室内空气就已经龌龊,而现在更为糟糕,可见这一运动是“加剧”或“恶化”(accentuate)了空气污染。

34. Why were cracks in old houses not a big concern?

A Because indoor cleanness was not emphasized.

B Because they were technically unavoidable.

C Because environmental protection was given top priority.

D Because energy used to be inexpensive.

[答案与分析]D. 见最后一段第二句,说得很明白。

35. This passage is most probably taken from an article entitled

. A Energy Conservation

BAir Pollution Indoors

C House Building Crisis

D Traps in Building Construction

[答案与分析]B 此题为主旨题,最有可能的题目是“为节省能源而造成的室内空气污染”,故选B

 

 

12.   Passage Four

In 1993, New York State ordered stores to charge a deposit on beverage (饮料) containers. Within a year, consumers had returned millions of aluminum cans and glass and plastic bottles. Plenty of companies were eager to accept the aluminum and glass as raw materials for new products, but because few could figure out what to do with the plastic, much of it wound up buried in landfills (垃圾填埋场). The problem was not limited to New York. Unfortunately, there were too few uses for second-hand plastic.

Today, one out of five plastic soda bottles is recycled (回收利用) in the United States. The reason for the change is that now there are dozens of companies across the country buying discarded plastic soda bottles and turning them into fence posts, paint brushes, etc.

As the New York experience shows, recycling involves more than simply separating valuable materials from the rest of the rubbish. A discard remains a discard until somebody figures out how to give it a second lifeand until economic arrangements exist to give that second life value. Without adequate markets to absorb materials collected for recycling, throwaways actually depress prices for used materials.

Shrinking landfill space, and rising costs for burying and burning rubbish are forcing local governments to look more closely at recycling. In many areas, the East Coast especially, recycling is already the least expensive waste-management option. For every ton of waste recycled, a city avoids paying for its disposal, which, in parts of New York, amounts to savings of more than $100 per ton. Recycling also stimulates the local economy by creating jobs and trims the pollution control and energy costs of industries that make recycled products by giving them a more refined raw material.

36. What regulation was issued by New York State concerning beverage containers?

A Beverage companies should be responsible for collecting and reusing discarded plastic soda bottles.

B Throwaways should be collected by the state for recycling.

CConsumers had to pay for beverage containers and could get their money back on returning them. 

DA fee should be charged on used containers for recycling.

[答案与分析]C 第一段即说明了这一点,deposit保证金。

37. The returned plastic bottles in New York used to .

A be separated from other rubbish

B be turned into raw materials

C have a second-life value

D end up somewhere underground

[答案与分析]D 。文中提到“过去很少有人能想出如何处理废弃塑料,大多数填人地下填埋场”,故选D

38. The key problem in dealing with returned plastic beverage containers is.

A to sell them at a profitable price

B how to reduce their recycling costs

C how to turn them into useful things

D to lower the prices for used materials

[答案与分析]C 。很显然“回收塑料饮料罐是为了再利用”,C为答案。

39. Recycling has become the first choice for the disposal of rubbish because .

A local governments find it easy to manage

B other methods are more expensive

C recycling causes little pollution

D recycling has great appeal for the jobless

[答案与分析]B 。第四段第二句中的the least expensive就说的很明白。

40. It can be concluded from the passage that .

A recycling is to be recommended both economically and environmentally

B local governments in the U.S. can expect big profits from recycling

C rubbish is a potential remedy for the shortage of raw materials

D landfills will still be widely used for waste disposal

[答案与分析]A 。最后一句给出了明确的答案。就是说依据常识也能推出正确结论。

 

 

 

 

13.  Passage Two

Sport is not only physically challenging, but it can also be mentally challenging. Criticism from coaches, parents, and other teammates, as well as pressure to win can create an excessive amount of anxiety or stress for young athletes(运动员). Stress can be physical, emotional, or psychological and research has indicated that it can lead to burnout. Burnout has been described as dropping or quitting of an activity that was at one time enjoyable. The early years of development are critical years for learning about oneself. The sport setting is one where valuable experiences can take place. Young athletes can, for example, learn how to cooperate with others, make friends, and gain other social skills that will be used throughout their lives. Coaches and parents should be aware, at all times, that their feedback to youngsters can greatly affect their children. Youngsters may take their parents' and coaches' criticisms to heart and find a flaw (缺陷) in themselves.Coaches and parents should also be cautious that youth sport participation does not become work for children. The outcome of the game should not be more important than the process of learning the sport and other life lessons. In today's youth sport setting. Young athletes may be worrying more about who will win instead of enjoying themselves and the sport. Following a game many parents and coaches focus on the outcome and find fault with youngsters' performances. Positive reinforcement should be provided regardless of the outcome. Research indicates that positive reinforcement motivates and has a greater effect on learning than criticism. Again, criticism can create high levels of stress, Which can lead to burnout.

16. An effective way to prevent the burnout of young athletes is

A)to reduce their mental stress        B)to increase their sense of success

C)to make sports less competitive              D)to make sports more challenging

[答案与分析]A 文中第一段告诉我们stress can be physical,emotional,or psychological, and research has indicated that it can lead to burnout.压力可能是生理上的,情绪上的或是心理上的,研究表明它可能导致崩溃。那么防止崩溃的有效方法当然是减少压力。

17. According to the passage sport is positive for young people in that .

A) it can help them learn more about society        B) it enables them to find flaws in themselves

C) it can provide them with valuable experiences   D) it teaches them how to set realistic goals for themselves

[答案与分析]C 文中第二段第二句及第三句:The sport setting is one where valuable experiences can take place.Young athletes can,for example,learn how to cooperate with others,make friends,and gain other social skills that will be used throughout their lives.运动是一个能产生有价值经历的地方。举例说,年轻的运动员们可以学习与他人合作,交朋友,学习使他们终生受益的社交技巧。

18. Many coaches and parents are in the habit of criticizing young athletes _ .

A)believing that criticism is beneficial for their early development

B)without realizing criticism may destroy their self confidence

C)in order to make them remember life's lessons          D)so as to put more pressure on them

[答案与分析]D 文中第二段最后两句Coaches and parents should be aware,at all times,that their feedback to youngsters can greatly affect their children, Youngsters may take their parents'and coaches' criticisms to heart and find a flaw(缺陷)in themselves,练习和家长应该明白,在任何时候,他们对孩子们的反应能极大的影响他们。孩子们会把家长和教练的批评记在心头并找到自己的不足。意即教练和家长们在给孩子们以压力。

19. According to the passage parents and coaches should .

A)pay more attention to letting children enjoy sports          B)help children to win every game

C)train children to cope with stress            D)enable children to understand the positive aspect of sports

[答案与分析]A 。通读全文,不难看出作者希望孩子们能从运动中得到乐趣。

20. The author's purpose in writing the passage is .

A)to teach young athletes how to avoid burnout

B)to persuade young children not to worry about criticism

C)to stress the importance of positive reinforcement to children

D)to discuss the skill of combining criticism with encouragement

[答案与分析]C 。文章第三段最后三句明确地告诉我们作者的意图:Following a game,many parents and coaches focus on the outcome and find fault with youngsters' performances.Positive reinforcement should be provided regardless of the outcome.research indicates that positive reinforcement motivates and has a greater effect on learning than criticism.在比赛之后,很多家长只关心比赛结果,以及找出孩子们的不足之处。但不管结果如何,都应给予孩子们正面的鼓励。研究表明比起批评,正面的鼓励在学习中更有效。而且,批评能产生很大的压力,导致崩溃。

 

14.   Passage Three

Humanity uses a little less than half the water available worldwide. Yet occurrences of shortages and droughts (干旱) are causing famine and distress in some areas, and industrial and agricultural by-products are polluting water supplies. Since the world's population is expected to double in the next 50 years, many experts think we are on the edge of a widespread water crisis.

But that doesn't have to be the outcome. Water shortages do not have to trouble the world-if we start valuing water more than we have in the past. Just as we began to appreciate petroleum more after the 1970s oil crises, today we must start looking at water from a fresh economic perspective. We can no longer afford to consider water a virtually free resource of which we can use as much as we like in any way we want.

Instead, for all uses except the domestic demand of the poor, governments should price water to reflect its actual value. This means charging a fee for the water itself as well as for the supply costs.

Governments should also protect this resource by providing water in more economically and environmentally sound ways. For example, often the cheapest way to provide irrigation(灌溉)water in the dry tropics is through small-scale projects, such as gathering rainfall in depressions(凹地) and pumping it to nearby cropland.

No matter what steps governments take to provide water more efficiently, they must change their institutional and legal approaches to water use. Rather than spread control among hundreds or even thousands of local, regional, and national agencies that watch various aspects of water use, countries should set up central authorities to coordinate water policy.

 

21. What is the real cause of the potential water crisis.

A)Only harf of the world's warter can be used.

B)The world population is increasing faster and faster.

C)Half of the world's water resources have been seriously polluted.

D)Humanity has not placed sufficient value on water resources.

[答案与分析]D 文中第二段第二句:Water shortages do not have to trouble the world if we start valuing water more than we have in the past.如果我们现在比过去更加珍惜水的话,水资源短缺应不会困扰世界。

22. As indicated in the passage, the water problem .

A)is already serious in certain parts of the world.    B)Has been exaggerated by some experts in the field

C)Poses a challenge to the technology of building reservoirs

D)Is underestimated by government organizations at different levels

[答案与分析]A 通读全文不难看出水资源问题在世界某些地方已变得很严重。文中第一段第二句:Yet occurrences of shortages and droughts are causing famine and distress in some areas,and industrial and agricultural by-products are polluting water supplies.更是说明了这一点。

23. According to the author, the water price should .

A)be reduced to the minimum        B)stimulate domestic demand

C)correspond to its real value        D)take into account the occurrences of droughts

[答案与分析]C 。文中第三段第一句:Instead,for all uses'except the domestic demand of the poor,governments should price water to reflect its actual value.对水资源的利用,包括国内穷人对水的需求,政府应提高水价,以反映其真正价值。

24. The author says that in some hot and dry areas it is advisable to .

A)build big lakes to store water        B)construct big pumping stations

C)build small and cheap irrigation systems        D)channel water from nearby rivers to cropland

[答案与分析]C 文中第四段:Governments should also protect this resource by providing water in more economically and environmentally sound ways.For example,often the cheapest way to provide irrigation water in the dry tropics is...政府应通过为水资源建立更经济,更环保的有效方式来保护水资源。例如,最廉价的方式是……

25. In order to raise the efficiency of the water supply, measures should be taken to .

A)guarantee full protection of the environment                        B)centralize the management of water resources

C)increase the sense of responsibility of agencies at all levels        D)encourage local and regional of water resources

[答案与分析]B 。文中最后一句:Rather than spread control among hundreds or even thousands of local,regional,and national agencies that watch various aspects of water use,countries should set up central authorities to coordinate water policy.与其将权力分散到地方政府,由国家的代理机构来监督水资源的利用情况,不如国家建立调整用水政策的权威机构。

 

15.   Passage Four

We can see how the product life cycle works by looking at the introduction of instant coffee. When it was introduced, most people did not like it as well as "regular"coffee and it took several years to gain general acceptance (introduction stage). At one point, though, Instant coffee grew rapidly in popularity and many brands were introduced (stage of rapid growth). After a while people became attached to one brand and sales leveled off (stage of maturity). Sales went into a slight decline (衰退)when freeze-dried coffees were introduced (stage of decline).

The importance of the product life cycle to marketers is this: Different stages in the product life cycle call for different strategies. The goal is to extend product life so that sales and profits do not decline. One strategy is called market modification. It means that marketing managers look for new users and market sections. Did you know, for example, that the backpacks that so many students carry today were originally designed for the military?

Market modification also means searching for increased usage among present customers or going for a different market, such as senior citizens. A marketer may re-position the product to appeal to new market sections.

Another product extension strategy is called product modification. It involves changing product quality, features, or style to attract new users or more usage from present users. American auto manufacturers are using quality improvement as one way to recapture world markets. Note, also, how auto manufacturers once changed styles dramatically from year to year to keep demand from falling.

 

26. According to the passage, when people grow fond of one particular brand of a product, its sales will .

A)decrease gradually C)improve enormously

B)become unstable D)remain at the same level

[答案与分析]D 文中第一段倒数第二句:After a while,people became attached to one brand and sales leveled off.一般时间以后,人们熟悉了一个品牌,销量也就不再上升。level off意为保持平飞,喻意为事业到达不可能再发展的阶段。

27. The first paragraph tells us that a new product is .

A)usually introduced to satisfy different tastes

B)often more expensive than old ones

C)often inferior to old ones at first

D)not easily accepted by the public

[答案与分析]D 文中第一段第二句:When it was introduced,most people did not like it as well asregularcoffee,and it took several years to gain general acceptance.当一种新咖啡被介绍时,大多数人象对待普通咖啡一样不喜欢它,得到公众的认可,要花上几年时间。

28. Marketers need to know which of the four stages a product is in so as to .

A)work out marketing policies C)promote its production

B)increase its popularity D)speed up its life cycle

[答案与分析]A 文中第二段第一句:The importance of the product life cycle to marketers is this;Different stages in the product life cycle call for different strategies.The goal is to extend product life so that sales and profits do not decline.产品的周期对行销人员的重要性是,产品周期不同的阶段会有不同的策略。目标是扩大产品周期以使销量和盈利不会降低。

29. The author mentions the example of "backpacks"(Line 4, Para.2 ) to show the importance of .

A)increasing usage among students C)pleasing the young as well as the old

B)exploring new market sections D)serving both military and civil needs

[答案与分析]B 文中第二段第三句:One strategy is called market modification.It means that marketing managers look for new users and market sections.有一项叫做市场修正的策略,它意味着市场经营人员要寻找新的消费群和新市场。

30. In order to recover their share of the world market, U.S. auto makers are .

A)improving product quality C)re-positioning their product in the market

B)modernizing product style D)increasing product features

[答案与分析]C 文中最后一段第三句:American auto manufacturers are using quality improvement as one way to recapture world markets.美国的汽车制造厂正在利用改进产品质量作为重新占领世界市场的一种方式。其中,to recapture(夺回)re-positioning(重新找到位置)意义相符。

 

 

 

16.   Part Reading Comprehension

Statuses are marvelous human inventions that enable us to get along with one another and to determine where we "fit" in society. As we go about our everyday lives, we mentally attempt to place people in terms of their statuses. For example, we must judge whether the person in the library is a reader or a librarian, whether the telephone caller is a friend or a salesman, whether the unfamiliar person on our property is a thier or a meter reader, and so on.

    The statuses we assume often vary with the people we encounter, and change throughout life. Most of us can, at very high speed, assume the statuses that various situations require. Much of social interaction consists of identifying and selecting among appropriate statuses and allowing other people to assume their statuses in relation to us. This means that we fit our actions to those of other people based on a constant mental process of appraisal and interpretation. Although some of us find the task more difficult than others, most of us perform it rather effortlessly.

    A status has been compared to ready-made clothes. Within certain limits, the buyer can choose style and fabric. But an American is not free to choose the costume (服装) of a Chinese peasant or that of a Hindu prince. We must choose from among the clothing presented by our society. Furthermore, our choice is limited to a size that will fit, as well as by our pocketbook (钱包). Having made a choice within these limits we can have certain alterations made, but apart from minor adjustments, we tend to be limited to what the stores have on their racks. Statuses too come ready made, and the range of choice among them is limited.

    这是一篇说明文,讲的是人们的Status(身份、地位)这一问题。

 

51. In the first paragraph, the writer tells us that statuses can help us _______.

  A) determine whether a person is fit for a certain job

  B) behave appropriately in relation to other people

  C) protect ourselves in unfamiliar situations

  D) make friends with other people

[答案及分析]:[B]事实辨认题。问在第一段作者告诉我们人的身份对我们有下列哪种帮助。第一段第一句说得很明白:“身份有助于我们和别人相处,决定我们在社会中所处的地位、扮演的角色”,[B]项意为“正确地与人交往”,正是上述意思。

 

52. According to the writer, people often assume different statuses ______.

  A) in order to identify themselves with others

  B) in order to better identify others

  C) as their mental processes change

  D) as the situation changes

[答案及分析]:[D]事实辨认题。问作者认为,在什么情况下人们经常具有不同的身份。[A]项意为“为了将自己预其他人区别开”,[B]项为“为了更好地识别他人”,[C]项为“当心理发生变化时”,[D]项意为“随着环境的变化”。[A]、[B]、[C]三项都不合文章原意,并且根据第二段第一、二句话可知[D]项正确。

 

53. The word "appraisal" (Line5, Para.2) most probably means "_______".

  A) involvement    B) appreciation   C) assessment   D) presentation

[答案及分析]:[C]词义理解题。问第二段第六行中的appraisal一词的意思是什么。根据该词所在的句子,可知该词含义和mental process(思想过程)有关,并且可能与和其并列的词interpretation(解释,说明,理解)有一定相似之处。involvement意为“陷入,卷入;牵涉,包含”,assessment意为“估计,评估;所估计之数额”,appreciation表示“感谢,感激;欣赏,评价,赏识”,presentation意为“赠送;提出;引见,介绍;出席,呈现;演出”。比较起来,[B]项符合上述两点,而且意思上说得通。appraisal的准确意思是“估计,估价,评价”,在此句中“评价”讲。

 

54. In the last sentence of the second paragraph, the pronoun "it" refers to "______".

  A) fitting our actions to those of other people appropriately

  B) identification of other people's statuses

  C) selecting one's own statuses    D)  constant mental process

[答案及分析]:[A]事实辨认题。问第二段最后一句中“it”指代什么。根据句意及其结构可知:it指代the task,即前一句“we fit out actions to those of people based on a constant mental process of appraisal and interpretation”,不难看出[A]项正确。

17.   Passage Two

Many a young person tells me he wants to be a writer. I always encourage such people, but I also explain that there's a big difference between "being a writer" and writing. In most cases these individuals are dreaming of wealth and fame, not the long hours alone at typewriter. "You've got to want to write," I say to them, "not want to be a writer".

    The reality is that writing is a lonely, private and poor-paying affair. For every writer kissed by fortune there are thousands more whose longing is never rewarded. When I left a 20-year career in the U.S.Coast Guard to become a freelance writer (自由撰稿者), I had no prospects at all. What I did have was a friend who found me my room in a New York apartment building. It didn't even matter that it was cold and had no bathroom. I immediately bought a used manual typewriter and felt like a genuine writer.

    After a year or so, however, I still hadn't gotten a break and began to doubt myself. It was so hard to sell a story that barely made enough to eat. But I knew I wanted to write. I had dreamed about it for years. I wasn't going to be one of those people who die wondering, What if? I would keep putting my dream to the test-even though it meant living with uncertainty and fear of failure. This is the Shadow land of hope, and anyone with a dream must learn to live there.

 

55. By saying that "an American is not free to choose the costume of a Chinese peasant or that of a Hindu prince" (Lines 2-3, Para. 3), the writer means _______.

  A) different people have different styles of clothes

  B) ready-made clothes may need alterations

  C) statuses come ready made just like clothes

  D) our choice of statuses is limited

[答案及分析]:[D]句意理解题,问文章中说“一个美国人不能选择中国农民或印度王子的服装”(第三段第二、三行),作者说这句话是什么意思。文章说得很明白:身份如同已有的服装一样,我们在选择时会受到一定限制。所以[D]项正确。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

18.   Passage Two

Many a young person tells me he wants to be a writer. I always encourage such people, but I also explain that there's a big difference between "being a writer" and writing. In most cases these individuals are dreaming of wealth and fame, not the long hours alone at typewriter. "You've got to want to write," I say to them, "not want to be a writer".

    The reality is that writing is a lonely, private and poor-paying affair. For every writer kissed by fortune there are thousands more whose longing is never rewarded. When I left a 20-year career in the U.S.Coast Guard to become a freelance writer (自由撰稿者), I had no prospects at all. What I did have was a friend who found me my room in a New York apartment building. It didn't even matter that it was cold and had no bathroom. I immediately bought a used manual typewriter and felt like a genuine writer.

    After a year or so, however, I still hadn't gotten a break and began to doubt myself. It was so hard to sell a story that barely made enough to eat. But I knew I wanted to write. I had dreamed about it for years. I wasn't going to be one of those people who die wondering, What if? I would keep putting my dream to the test-even though it meant living with uncertainty and fear of failure. This is the Shadow land of hope, and anyone with a dream must learn to live there.

这是一篇议论文,讨论的主题是成为真正的作家的艰辛与不易。

56. The passage is meant to ______.

  A) warn young people of the hardships that a successful writer has to experience

  B) advise young people to give up their idea of becoming a professional writer

  C) show young people it's unrealistic for a writer to pursue wealth and fame

  D) encourage young people to pursue a writing career

[答案及分析]:[A]主旨题。问这篇文章的主旨是什么。[A]意为“警告年轻人要想成为一个成功的作家所必须经历的艰辛。”[B]项意为“劝告年轻人放弃当职业作家的理想”,这显然不对因为文章开篇就说:“许多年轻人告诉我他想成为作家,我总是给他们以鼓励。”[C]项意为“告诉年轻人,对于作家来说,追求财富和名誉是不现实的”这与文章本意不合。本意只是说“被幸运之神吻过的作家(Writer Kissed by Fortrne)”很少,但这只是文章的一个小部分,目的还是在于告诫年轻人成为作家必须吃苦,若选[C]项,不仅意思上不吻合文章,而且犯了以偏盖全的错误。[D]项意为“鼓励年轻人努力成为一个作家”,而从文章中可以看出,作者只是鼓励那些有志于成为作家的人,而并非鼓励年轻人去当作家。

57. What can be concluded from the passage?

  A) Genuine writers often find their work interesting and rewarding.

  B) A writer's success depends on luck rather than on effort.

  C) Famous writers usually live in poverty and isolation.

  D) The chances for a writer to become successful are small.

[答案及分析]:[D]推论题。问从文章中可以得到以下哪项结论。[A]项意为“真正的作家通常会发现他们的工作充满趣味且回报丰厚”。从第二段第一句话可看出[A]错,[B]项意为“作家的成功更多地依赖运气而非努力”,显然与文章不等。[C]项说“著名的作家通常生活在孤独和贫困之中”,文章中没这个意思。有些同学可能会因第二段第一句话而认为[C]项正确,但仔细体会不难看出该句意思和[C]项并不相同。从第二段第二话可以知[D]项正确。

58. Why did the author begin to doubt himself after the first year of his writing career?

  A) He wasn't able to produce a single book.

  B) He hadn't seen a change for the better.

  C) He wasn't able to have a rest for a whole year.

  D) he found his dream would never come true.

[答案及分析]:[B]事实辨认题。问为什么作者在写作一年后开始怀疑自己。根据第三段第一句话可知原因在于:“I still hadn't gotten abreak.(我还是没有进展、突破)。”[B]项正是这个意思。

59. "... people who die wondering, What if?" (Line 3, para.3) refers to "those ________".

  A) who think too much of the dark side of life

  B) who regret giving up their career halfway

  C) who think a lot without making a decision

  D) who are full of imagination even upon death

[答案及分析]:[B]词义理解题。问第三段第三、四行所说的“people who die wondering(在犹疑、徘徊中毁灭的人)”指什么人。根据上下文可以推测,“people who die wondering”指因绝望而放弃写作的人,所以选[B]。

 

 

19.   Passage Three

It is, everyone agrees, a huge task that the child performs when he learns to speak, and the fact that he does so in so short a period of time challenges explanation.

    Language learning begins with listening. Individual children vary greatly in the amount of listening they do before they start speaking,and late starters are often long listeners. Most children will "obey" spoken instructions some time before they can speak, though the word obey is hardly accurate as a description of the eager and delighted cooperation usually shown by the child. Before they can speak, many children will also ask questions by gesture and by making questioning noises.

    Any attempt to trace the development from the noises babies make to their first spoken words leads to considerable difficulties. It is agreed that they enjoy making noises, and that during the first few months one or two noises sort themselves out as particularly indicative of delight, distress, sociability, and so on. But since these cannot be said to show the baby's intention to communicate, they can hardly be regarded as early forms of language. It is agreed, too, that from about three months they play with sounds for enjoyment, and that by six months they are able to add new sounds to their repertoire (能发出的全部声音). This self-imitation leads on to deliberate (有意识的) imitation of sounds made or words spoken to them by other people. The problem then arises as to the point at which one can say that these imitations can be considered as speech.

60. "Shadow land" in the last sentence refers to ______.

  A) the wonderland one often dreams about  B) the bright future that one is looking forward to

  C) the state of uncertainty before one's final goal is reached  D) a world that exists only in one's imagination

[答案及分析]:[C]词义理解题。问文章最后一句shadowland是什么意思。我们从两方面来推测该词的含义:(1)词的构成。shadow意为“影,阴影:大小或形状不定的阴影”,land为“土地,领域”,由此可知shadowland应该是一个不太光明,理想的状态、地方:(2)从句意及前的睦,shadowland是用This来指代,而this意指上文:it meant living with uncertainty and fear of failure(生活前途不定,害怕失败)。据此已不难判断答案。

    这是一篇说明文,主要讲的是幼儿学习发音、说话的问题。

61. By "... challenges explanation" (Line 2, Para.1) the author means that ______.

  A) no explanation is necessary for such an obvious phenomenon  B) no explanation has been made up to now

  C) it's no easy job to provide an adequate explanation  D) it's high time that an explanation was provided

[答案及分析]:[C]词义理解题。问第一段第二行的“challenges explanation(对解释提出质疑、挑战)”是什么意思。该句话的意思是:“他在如此短的时间就如此做的事实(指孩子学习说话)向原有的解释提出了质疑、挑战。”可见,对儿童学习说话这一问题已有解释,但该解释不能令人信服,因而受到质疑。所以都不正确,只有[C]合适。

62. The third paragraph is mainly about _____.

  A) the development of babies' early forms of language  B) the difficulties of babies in learning to speak

  C) babies' strong desire to communicate  D) babies' intention to communicate

[答案及分析]:[A]主旨题。问第三段主要是说什么。通读全段可知该段主要是在“trace the development from the noise babies make to their first spoken words.”[A]项正是此意。

63. The author's purpose in writing the second paragraph is to show that children _______.

A)     usually obey without asking questions  B) are passive in the process of learning to spea

  C) are born cooperative      D) learn to speak by listening

[答案及分析]:[C]主旨题。问作者写第二段的目的是为了表明什么。该段的中心句是第一句话:Language learning begins with listening.D]项正确。

64. From the passage we learn that ______.

A)     early starters can learn to speak within only six months  B) children show a strong desire to communicate by making noises  C) imitation plays an important role in learning to speak  D) children have various difficulties in learning to speak

[答案及分析]:[C]事实辨认题。问从文章中我们可以得到下述哪项结论。[A]项意为“早学者可以在仅仅六个月内学会说话”,[B]项意为“幼儿对用发出声音进行交流表现出强烈的愿望”,[C]项意为“在学习说话的过程中模仿很重要”,[D]项是说:“幼儿学习说话有许多困难”。[A]、[B]、[C]三项的意思在文章中都找不到,[C]项与文章原意一致。

65. The best title for this passage would be ______.

  A) How Babies Learn to Speak      B) Early Forms of Language C) A Huge Task for Children    D)Noise Making and language Learning  [答案及分析]:[A]主旨题。问下列哪个标题最适合本文。[A]“婴儿如何学说话”,[B]“语言的早期形式”,[C]孩子的一大任务”,[D]“发音和语言学习”。显然[A]项合适。

 

20.   Passage Four

    Psychologists take opposing views of how external rewards, from warm praise to cold cash, affect motivation and creativity. Behaviorists, who study the relation between actions and their consequences, argue that rewards can improve performance at work and school. Cognitive (认知学派的) researchers, who study various aspects of mental life, maintain that rewards often destroy creativity by encouraging dependence on approval and gifts from others.

    The latter view has gained many supporters, especially among educators. But the careful use of small monetary (金钱的) rewards sparks creativity in grade-school children, suggesting that properly presented inducements (刺激) indeed aid inventiveness, according to a study in the June Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

    "If kids know they're working for a reward and can focus on a relatively challenging task, they show the most creativity," says Robert Eisenberger of the University of Delaware in Newark. "But it's easy to kill creativity by giving rewards for poor performance or creating too much anticipation for rewards."

    A teacher who continually draws attention to rewards or who hands out high grades for ordinary achievement ends up with uninspired students, Eisenberger holds. As an example of the latter point, he notes growing efforts at major universities to tighten grading standards and restore failing grades.

    In earlier grades, the use of so-called token economies, in which students handle challenging problems and receive performance-based points toward valued rewards, shows promise in raising effort and creativity, the Delaware psychologist claims.

 

    这是一篇说明文,但很有可能是某篇议论言语的一部分。它介绍了心理学家对外部刺激(奖励、报偿)对人行为的影响的两种对立的观点。

66. Psychologists are divided with regard to their attitudes toward _____.

  A) the choice between spiritual encouragement and monetary rewards

  B) the amount of monetary rewards for student' creativity

  C) the study of relationship between actions and their consequences

  D) the effects of external rewards on students' performance

[答案及分析]:[D]事实辨论题。问心理学家因对什么看法不同而被分成两派。[A]项意为“在精神鼓励和物质奖励之间的不同选择”,而根据文章第一句话,精神鼓励(warm praise)和物质奖励(cold cash)都属于外部刺激、报偿、奖励(external rewards),所以[A]可排除。[B]项意为“对学生的创造性活动给予物质奖励的数量”,[C]项意为“对行为和结果之间的关系的研究”,[D]项意为“外部刺激对学生行为的影响”,显然[B]、[C]不对。

 

67. What is the response of many educators to external rewards for their students?

  A) They have no doubts about them.     B) They have doubts about them.

  C) They approve of them.      D) They avoid talking about them.

[答案及分析]:[B]推论题。问大多数教育工作者对给予其学生的外部奖励持什么态度。根据第二段第一句话:The tatter view(指认为rewards often destroy creativity by encouraging dependence on approval and gifts from others)has gained many supporters,especially among educators.由此可知,许多educators反对external rewards for their students,所以选[B]。

 

68. Which of the following can best raise students; creativity according to Robert Eisenberger?

  A) Assigning them tasks they have not dealt with before.

  B) Assigning them tasks which require inventiveness.

  C) Giving them rewards they really deserve.

  D) Giving them rewards they anticipate.

[答案及分析]:[C]推论题。问根据Robert Eisenberger的观点,下述哪项能最好地提高学生的创造力。首先我们得明白Robert Eisenberger的观点是什么:If kids know they are working for a reward and can focus on a relatively challenging task,they show the most creativity.But it is easy to kill creativity by giving rewards for poor performance or creating too much anticipation for rewards.据此不难判断[C]项正确。

 

69. It can be inferred from the passage that major universities are trying to tighten their grading standards because they believe ______.

  A) rewarding poor performance may kill the creativity of students

  B) punishment is more effective than rewarding

  C) failing uninspired students helps improve their overall academic standards

  D) discouraging the students' anticipation for easy rewards is a matter of urgency

[答案及分析]:[A]推论题。问从文章中可以推断出:重点大学正在试图加强其升级的标准是因为他们认为什么。关于本题的信息在文章第四段。As an example of the latter point( it's easy to kill creativity by giving rewards for poor performance or creating too much anticipation for rewards),he notes growing efforts at major universities to tighten grading standards and restore failing grades(恢复留级制度)。据此可知[A]项为正确项。

 

70. The phrase "token economies" (Line 1, Para. 5) probably refers to _____.

  A) ways to develop economy         B) systems of rewarding students

  C) approaches to solving problems  D) methods of improving performance

[答案及分析]:[B]词义理解题。问第五段第一行的“token economies”指的是什么。我们知道,token意为“象征性的”,而且根据其定语从句“in which students handle challenging problems and receive performance-based points toward valued reward”,不难判断正确答案应为[B]项。

21.   Part Rdading comprehension

Passage One

The fridge is considered a necessity. It has been so since the 1960s when packaged food first appeared with the label:"store in the refrigerator."

In my fridgeless fifties childhood, I was fed well and healthily. The milkman came daily, the grocer, the butcher(肉商), the baker, and the ice-cream man delivered two or three times a week. The Sunday meat would last until Wednesday and surplus (剩余) bread and milk became all kinds of cakes. Nothing was wasted, and we were never troubled by rotten food. Thirty years on food deliveries have ceased, fresh vegetables are almost unobtainable in the country.

The invention of the fridge contributed comparatively little to the art of food

preservation. A vast way of well-tried techniques already existed--natural cooling, drying, smoking salting, sugaring, bottling...

What refrigeration did promote was marketing--marketing hardware and electricity,

marketing soft drinks, marketing dead bodies of animals around the globe in search of a good price.

Consequently, most of the world's fridges are to be found, not in the tropics where they might prove useful, but in the wealthy countries with mild temperatures where they are climatically almost unnecessary. Every winter, millions of fridges hum away continuously, and at vast expense, busily maintaining an artificially-cooled space inside an artificially? heated house-while outside, nature provides the desired temperature free of charge.

The fridge's effect upon the environment has been evident, while its contribution to human happiness has been insignificant, If you don't believe me, try it yourself, invest in a food cabinet and turn off your fridge next winter. You may miss the hamburgers (汉堡包), but at least you'll get rid of that terrible hum.

这是一篇议论文。本文主要介绍的电冰箱的产业及发展情况,同时作者也阐明了本人对电冰箱的观点。文章第一段作者介绍了电冰箱产生的时间;第十段作者从自己的亲身经验谈及过去没有电冰箱的生活经历。最后作者谈了电冰箱出现后给人们带来的方便的同时,也给人们带来了害处。

 

11. The statement "In my fridgeless fifties childhood, I was fed well and heal healthily." ( Line 1, Para. 2) suggests that _______.

A) the author was well-fed and healthy even without a fridge in his fifties

B) the author was not accustomed to use fridges even in his fifties

C) there was no fridge in the author's home in the 1950s.

D)the fridge was in its early stage of development in the 1950s

[答案及分析]:[C]。辨认事实题。问第二自然段的第一句话说明了什么深刻含义。该题主要目的是测试学生对该句的真正完整意思的理解。四个答案中,表面上看,A好像与原句相似,但它只说出了原句的表面意思;BD与原题信息不符。答案C说出了原句的深刻含义“In my fridgeless Fifties childhood,(在五十年代我是少年,当时没有电冰箱,……)”故C为正确答案。

12. Why does the author say that nothing was wasted before the invention of fridges?

A)People would not buy more food than was necessary.

B) Food was delivered to people two or three times a week.

C)Food was sold fresh and did not get rotten easily.

D)People had effective ways to preserve their food.

[答案及分析]:[D]推论题。问为什么作者说在电冰箱发明出来之前,食品也没有被浪费掉。文章中谈到各种食品商人每周送货来2-3次,对吃不完的且可能放不住的食品,人们将其重新加工可延长使用期。如:…and surplus bread and milk became all kinds of cakesD为正确答案。B原文中虽被提及,但不是主要意思。AC与原文不符。

13. Who benefited the least from fridges according to the author?

A) Inventors B) Consumers

C) Manufacturers D) Traveling salesmen

[答案及分析]:[B]辨认事实题。问使用电冰箱之后谁的受益最小。本文作者观点很明确,“The fridge's effect upon the environment has been evident,while its contribution to human happiness has been insignificant.”故答案B是正确的:ACD与问题不符。

14. Which of the following phrases in the fifth paragraph indicates the fridge's

negative effect on the environment?

A) "Hum away continuously" B) "Climatically almost unnecessary"

C) "Artificially_cooled space" D) "With mild temperatures"

[答案及分析]:[A]。辨认事实题。问哪个词组能表达电冰箱给人类带来的副作用。在第五段中,作者指出:Every winter,millions of fridges hum away continuously,...(每年冬天,数以百万计的电冰箱在不断嗡嗡作响……)”,这是指电冰箱运转时发出噪音。很明显,这就是电冰箱给环境造成的逼作用。故A为正确答案;BCD意思与原文不符。

15. What is the author's overall attitude toward fridges?

A) Neutral B) Critical C) Objective D) Compromising

[答案及分析]:[B]。推断题。问作者对电冰箱的总的态度如何。通读全文可知,作者对电冰箱持批评态度。如在第三段中,“The invention of the fridge contributed comparatively little...”,在第五段中“Every winter,millions of fridges' hum away continuously...”,在第六段中“The fridge's effect upon...insignificant.”由此右可知B为正确答案。ACD与本文不符。

22.   Passage Two

The human brain contains 10 thousand million cells and each of these may have a

thousand connections. Such enormous numbers used to discourage us and cause us to dismiss the possibility of making a machine with humanlike ability, but now that we have grown used to moving forward at such a pace we can be less sure. Quite soon, in only 10 or 20 years perhaps, we will be able to assemble a machine as complex as the human brain, and if we can we will. It may then take us a long time to render it intelligent by loading in the right software (软件) or by altering the architecture but that too will happen.

I think it certain that in decades, not centuries, machines of silicon () will

arise first to rival and then exceed their human ancestors. Once they exceed us they will be capable of their own design. In a real sense they will be able to reproduce themselves. Silicon will have ended carbon's long control. And we will no longer be able to claim ourselves to be the finest intelligence in the known universe.

As the intelligence of robots increases to match that of humans and as their cost declines through economies of scale we may use them to expand our frontiers, first on earth through their ability to withstand environments, harmful to ourselves. Thus, deserts may bloom and the ocean beds be mined. Further ahead, by a combination of the great wealth this new age will bring and the technology it will provide, the construction of a vast, man-created world in space, home to thousands or millions of people, will be within our power.

    这是一篇说明文,介绍如何发展具有人工智能的机器。文章第一段介绍了人脑结构很复杂,而人们想设计出一台与人脑一样复杂的机器;第二段介绍了未来将由硅芯机器替代“碳”的时代;第三段是展望未来,科技发展将给社会带来深刻的变化。

16. In what way can we make a machine intelligent?

A) By making it work in such environments as deserts, oceans or space.

B) By working hard for 10 or 20 years.

C) By either properly programming it or changing its structure.

D )By reproducing it.

[答案及分析]:[C]。辨认事实题。问用什么方法可使机器具有人工智能。第一段中最后一句话说:“It may then take us...will happen(我们要花很长时间,通过给机器装上合适的软件或改变内部结构使机器具备智能)。”故C为正确答案;ABD的内容在文章中虽被提到,但与问题不符。

 

17. What does the writer think about machines with human-like ability?

A) He believes they will be useful to human beings.

B) He believes that they will control us in the future.

C) He is not quite sure in what way they may influence us. D) He doesn't consider the construction of such machines possible.

[答案及分析]:[A]。推断题。问作者如何看待具有像人一样的智能的机器。文章最后一段介绍了具有人工智能的机器可为人类做许多事情。由此可以推断出;人工智能机器对人类非常有用,故A为正确答案。

18. The word carbon( Line 4, Para. 2) stands for" _______"

A) intelligent robots B) a chemical element

C) an organic substance D) human beings

[答案及分析]:[D]。正误判断题。问文章中carbon()指的是什么。在文章第二段中作者谈到;在未来几十年中,硅芯机器将与对的相遇并将超过对手(人类),因而硅芯机器将结束碳的时代(即人类)。由此可看出文中carbon指的便是human beings。故答案D为正确的。

 

19. A robot can be used to expand our frontiers when _______. A) its intelligence and cost are beyond question

B) it is able to bear the rough environment

C) it is made as complex as the human brain

D) its architecture is different from that of the present ones

[答案及分析]:[A]。辨认事实题。问在什么情况下,人工智能机器可用于开发边远地区。在文章第三段开头,作者谈到As the intelligence of robots increases...to expand our frontiers,由此不难看出,intelligencecost这两个因素制着机器人是否能用于开发边远地区。故A为正确答案。

 

20. It can be inferred from the passage that _______.

A) after the installation of a great number of cells and connections, robots will

be capable of selfreproduction.

B) with the rapid development of technology, people have come to realize the possibility of making a machine with human-like ability.

C) once we make a machine as complex as the human brain, it will possess

intelligence

D) robots will have control of the vast, man-made world in space.

[答案及分析]:[B]。推论题。问根据文章可推论出下列哪项通读全文可知,作者认为随着科学技术的发展,人们可望生产出具有人工智能型的机器。在文章的第一段中提到了这个问题;在第二、三段中举例说明。因此B的信息与本文相符。

 

 

 

 

 

 

23.   Passage Three

After the violent earthquake that shook Los Angeles in 1994, earthquake scientists had good news to report; The damage and death toll (死亡人数) could have been much worse.

More than 60 people died in this earthquake. By comparison, an earthquake of similar intensity that shook America in 1988 claimed 25, 000 victims:

Injuries and deaths were relatively less in Los Angeles because the quake occurred at 4:31 a.m.on a holiday, when traffic was light on the city's highways. In addition, changes made to the construction codes in Los Angeles during the last 20 years have strengthened the city's buildings and highways, making them more resistant to quakes.

Despite the good news, civil engineers aren't resting on their successes. Pinned to their drawing boards are blueprints (蓝图的) for improved quake-resistant buildings. The new designs should offer even greater security to cities where earthquakes often take place.

In the past, making structures quake-resistant meant firm yet flexible materials

, such as steel and wood, that bend without breaking. Later, people tried to lift a building off its foundation, and insert rubber and steel between the building and its foundation to reduce the impact of ground vibrations. The most recent designs give buildings brains as well as concrete and steel supports, called smart buildings, the structures respond like living organisms to an earthquake's vibrations. When the ground shakes and the building tips forward, the computer would force the building to shift in the opposite direction.

The new smart structures could be very expensive to build. However, they would save many lives and would be less likely to be damaged during earthquakes.

    这是一篇说明文。主要介绍了建筑工程师设计出一种新型防震建筑。在第一、二段中作者介绍了1994年洛杉矶大地震中伤亡人数比较少,尤其与1988年的同级地震相比,伤亡人数比为60:25000,令人惊讶。那是为什么呢?在第三、四、五段中作者告诉我们是因为工程设计师们设计出了新型的建筑。在最后一段作者得出结论,新型建筑虽然造价很高,但它却可大大减少在地震发生时伤亡人数和财产损失。

21.One reason why the loss of lives in the Los Angeles earthquake was comparatively

low is that _______?

A) new computers had been installed in the buildings.

B) it occurred in the residential areas rather than on the highways.

C) large numbers of Los Angeles residents had gone for a holiday

D) improvements had been made in the construction of buildings and highways

[答案及分析]:[D]。辨认事实题。问洛杉矶地震人员伤亡数相对来说少的原因之一是下列陈述中的哪一项。在本文第五段中作者指出,防震建筑中除了继续沿用过去所采用的一些建筑材料之外,如今又引用计算机控制新型建筑,因而达到地震发生时用计算机抵消摇摆程度从而减少地震时的损失。由此可知,D为正确答案。

 

22. The function of the computer mentioned in the passage is to _______.

A) counterbalance an earthquake's action on the building

B) predict the coming of an earthquake with accuracy

C) help strengthen the foundation of the building

D) measure the impact of an earthquake's vibrations

[答案及分析]:[A]。判断题。问在本文中所提到的计算机的主要作用是什么。根据第五段中When the ground shakes...to shift in the opposite direction.由此可明显看出,A正确;C虽在本文中被提到,但信息与本题不符;BD在本文中均未提及。

23. The smart buildings discussed in the passage _______.

A) would cause serious financial problems

B) would be worthwhile though costly

C) would increase the complexity of architectural design

D) can reduce the ground vibrations caused by earthquakes

[答案及分析]:[B]。辨认事实题。从第五段中可看出smart buildings指的就是将计算机用于建筑物中的最新的设计。那么在最后一段中,作者谈到这种新型建筑造价很高,但它可在大减少地震中的人员伤亡和其它损失,所以看来很值得。因此答案[B]是正确的;ACD与所问不符。

24. It can be inferred from the passage that in minimizing the damage caused by

earthquakes attention should be focused on _______.

A) the increasing use of rubber and steel in capital construction

B) the development of flexible building materials

C) the reduction of the impact of ground vibrations

D) early forecasts of earthquakes

[答案及分析]:[C]。推断题。问减少地震损失的主要注意力应放在哪儿。通读全文之后可知,在所有方法中最为先进的方法是将计算机用于新型建筑中去,而计算机主要是用于减少摇摆的程度,即减少地面震动的影响。由此可以推断出[C]为正确答案;而ABD与本文不符。

25. The author's main purpose in writing the passage is to _______.

A) compare the consequences of the earthquakes that occurred in the U. S.

B) encourage civil engineers to make more extensive use of computers.

C) outline the history of the development of quake-resistant building materials

D) report new developments in constructing quake-resistant building

[答案及分析]:[D]。推断题。问作者写本文的主要目的是什么。通过阅读全文可知,作者回顾历史,从过去地震伤亡人数较多和财产损失很大,到后来的新型建筑材料可以用于防震。一直到今天,工程设计进入最先进阶段,既将计算机用于建筑中去,来减少地震摇摆程度。由此看来,答案[D]是正确的。

24.   Passage Four

Even plants can run a fever, especially when they're under attack by insects or

disease. But unlike humans, plants can have their temperature taken from 3,000 feet away-straight up. A decade ago, adapting the infrared (红外线) scanning technology developed for military purposes and other satellites, physicist Stephen Paley came up with a quick way to take the temperature of crops to determine which ones are under stress. The goal was to let farmers precisely target pesticide(杀虫剂) spraying rather than rain poison on a whole field, which invariably includes plants that don't have pest(害虫) problems.

Even better, Paley's Remote Scanning Services Company could detect crop problems

before they became visible to the eye. Mounted on a plane flown at 3,000 feet at night ,an infrared scanner measured the heat emitted by crops. The data were transformed into a color-coded map showing where plants were running "fevers".Farmers could then spot-spray, using 50 to 70 percent less pesticide than they otherwise would.

The bad news is that Paley's company closed down in 1984, after only three years. Farmers resisted the new technology and long-term backers were hard to find.But with the renewed concern about pesticides on produce, and refinements in infrared scanning, Paley hopes to get back into operation.Agriculture experts have no doubt the technology works. "This technique can be used on 75 percent of agricultural land in the United States, "says George Oerther of Texas A&M. Ray Jackson, who recently retired from the Department of Agriculture, thinks.remote infrared crop scanning could be adopted by the end of the decade. But only if Paley finds the financial backing which he failed to obtain 10 years ago.

    这是一篇说明文。文章一开头就介绍了原用于军事和卫星的红外线扫描技术,如今被用在农业上。通过远距离测量植物的温度来判断农作物是否遭受虫害和疾病。在第二段中指出,物理学家帕里组建了帕里远红外扫描服务公司,来专门探测农业方面的情况。最后他的公司在三年后被迫关闭,主要是因为缺乏资金。另外,农民们也一时不能接受这种新技术。作者期待将来有一天可以解决财政困难,将这一新技术重新用到农业上去。

26. Plants will emit an increased amount of heat when they are _______

A) sprayed with pesticides B) facing an infrared scanner

C) in poor physical condition D) exposed to excessive sun rays

[答案及分析]:[C]。词组理解题。本文第一段的第一句话谈到:“Even plants can run fever...by insects or disease.”这就告诉了我们植物升高温度的原因。本句所问的也正是这个原因。因此,C正告诉了我们这一点,所以C是正确答案。

 

27. In order to apply pesticide spraying precisely, we can use infrared scanning to

_______.

A) estimate the damage to the crops

B) measure the size of the affected area

C) draw a color-coded map

D) locate the problem area

[答案及分析]:[D]词汇理解题。在第一段的原文中“The goal was to let farmers precisely target pesticide spraying...”其中的意思是“确定”(虫害发生的地方)”而答案D是说“要确定问题所在地区”,信息与本文相符,故D为正确答案;而ABC都与本文不符。

28. Farmers can save a considerable amount of pesticide by _______.

A) resorting to spot-spraying B) consulting infrared scanning experts

C) transforming poisoned rain D) detecting crop problems at an early stage

[答案及分析]:[A]。判断题。问农民通过何种方式可节省杀虫剂。在文章的第二段中谈到帕里远红外线扫描服务公司利用飞机上的远红外线扫描仪夜间在3000英尺的高度探测到庄稼的情况,然后可将这些情况提供给农民,农民可喷洒农药,这样只使用原来农药量的50%-70%就足够了。故答案A的信息与本文相符;而BCD均不正确。

 

29. The application of infrared scanning technology to agriculture met with some

difficulties _______.

A) the lack of official support B) its high cost C) the lack of financial D) its failure to help increase production

[答案及分析]:[C]。词汇理解题。问远红外扫描技术用于农业上时遇到的阻力,原因何在。在本文最后段中指出:1984年,帕里公司被迫关闭的原因一资金缺乏。并呼吁说:“But only if Paley finds the financial backing which he failed to obtain 10years ago.”其中financial backing的意思与本题C的“financial support”相同。所以答案C正确。

 

30. Infrared scanning technology may be brought back into operation because of _______.

A) the desire of farmers to improve the quality of their produce.

B) growing concern about the excessive use of pesticides on crops

C) the forceful promotion by the Department of Agriculture

D) full support from agricultural experts

[答案及分析]:[B]。正误判断题。问远红外扫描技术有可能重新用于农业,原因何在。在文章最后一段中说“But with the renewed concern...to get back into operation”由此可明显看出,B的信息与本文内容相符,所以答案B是正确的;而ACD都与本文不符。

 

 

 

25.   Part Reading Comprehension

Passage One

In bringing up children, every parent watches eagerly the child's acquisition(学会) of each new skill the first spoken words, the first independent steps, or the beginning of reading and writing.It is often tempting to hurry the child beyond his natural learning rate, but this can set up dangerous feelings of failure and states of worry in the child.This might happen at any stage. A baby might be forced to use a toilet too early, a young child might be encouraged to learn to read before he knows the meaning of the words he reads. On the other hand, though, if a child is left alone too much, or without any learning opportunities,he loses his natural enthusiasm for life and his desire to find out new things for himself.

Parents vary greatly in their degree of strictness towards their children. Some

may be especially strict in money matters. Others are sever over times of coming home at night or punctuality for meals. In general, the controls imposed represent the needs of the parents and the values of the community as much as the child's own happiness.

As regards the development of moral standards in the growing child, consistency

is very important in parental teaching. To forbid a thing one day and excuse it the next is no foundation for morality(道德). Also, parents should realize that"example is better than precept". If they are not sincere and do not practise what they preach (说教), their children may grow confused, and emotionally insecure when they grow old enough to think for themselves, and realize they have been to some extent fooled.

A sudden awareness of a marked difference between their parents' principles and

their morals can be a dangerous disappointment.

    这是一篇议论文,阐述了作者关于儿童早期教育的观点。

11. Eagerly watching the child's acquisition of new skills ______ .

A) should be avoided

B) is universal among parents

C) sets up dangerous states of worry in the child

D) Will make him lose interest in learning new things

[答案及分析]:[B]事实判断题。问哪个备选题与题干组成的句子是一个正确的陈述。A项意为“急切地希望孩子学会新的技能的心情应该避免”。B项意为“渴望孩子学会新的技能是父母的普遍心理”。C项意为“父母急切地希望孩子学会新技能会造成孩子的焦虑状态,这很危险。”D项意为“急于让孩子掌握新技能会使孩子失去学习新东西的兴趣。”根据文章第一句可知B项正确。ACD三项都似是而非,并非文章原意。

 

12. In the process of children's learning new skills parents ______ .

A)should encourage them to read before they know the meaning of the words they read

B) should not expect too much of them

C) should achieve a balance between pushing them too hard and leaving them on

their own

D) should create as many learning opportunities as possible

[答案及分析]:[C]归纳事实题。问在孩子学习技能的时候,父母应该如何。根据第一段可知,A项与文章原意恰好相反,文章本意是说“若让孩子读自己读不懂的东西会给孩子造成失败感和焦虑感”。B项是说“在孩子学习新技能的过程中,父母不应该对其期望太多”。文章中实际上并没有这个意思,其原意是还要违背学习的自然规律让孩子掌握新技能。这跟B项意思还是有区别的。D项的意思在文章中找不到。所以,只有C项合适。

 

13. The second paragraph mainly tells us that ______ .

A) parents should be strict with their children

B) parental controls reflect only the needs of the parents and the values of the

community

C) parental restrictions vary, and are not always enforced for the benefit of the

children alone

D) parents vary in their strictness towards their children according to the

situation

[答案及分析]:[C]主旨题。问第二段主要内容是什么。第二段说:父母对其孩子的要求的严格程度差异很大。有些父母在钱上对孩子管束极严,有些则严格要求孩子晚上回家的时间或是要求其按时吃饭。总之,他们对孩子的管束不仅是为了孩子自身的幸福,也代替着父母的需要和社会价值观。据此不难判断C项最准确。

14. The word "precept"( Line 3, Para. 3) probably means "______ ".

A) idea B) punishment C) behaviour D) instruction

[答案及分析]:[D]理解题。问第三段第三行中“precept”一词是什么意思。根据上下文,我们可以猜测到它应该跟下句中的“preach(说教)”意思差不多。所以选D

15. In moral matters, parents should _______ .

A) observe the rules themselves

B) be aware of the marked difference between adults and children

C) forbid things which have no foundation in morality

D) consistently ensure the security of their children

[答案及分析]:[A]事实辨认题。问在道德方面,父母应该如何。A项意为“自己遵守道德规则”。B项意为“意识到成人和儿童之间的显著区别”。C项意为“对没有道德基础的事情加以禁止”。D项意为“始终如一地确保自己孩子的安全”。根据第三段的内容,易知A正确。

26.  Passage Two

A good modern newspaper is an extraordinary piece of reading. It is remarkable first for what it contains: the range of news from local crime to international politics, from sport to business to fashion to science, and the range of comment and special features (特定) as well, from editorial page to feature articles and interviews to criticism of books, art, theatre and music. A newspaper is even more remarkable for the way one reads it: never completely, never straight through, but always by jumping from here to there, in and ont glancing at one piece, reading another article all the way through, reading just a few paragraphs of the next. A good modern newspaper offers a variety to attract many different readers, but far more than any one reader is interested in. What brings this variety together in one place is its topicality (时事性), its immediate relation to what is happening in your world and your locality now. But immediacy and the speed of production that goes with it mean also that much of what appears in a newspaper has no more than transient(短暂的) value. For all these reasons, no two people really read the same paper: what each person does is to put together out of the pages of that day's paper, his own selection and sequence, his own news paper. For all these reasons, reading newspapers efficiently, which means getting what you want from them without missing things you need but without wasting time, demands skill and self-awareness as you modify and apply the techniques of reading .

    这是一篇议论文,讨论了报纸应该具备的特性。

 

16. A modern newspaper is remarkable for all the following except its ______ .

A) wide coverage B) uniform style

C) speed in reporting news D) popularity

[答案及分析]:[B]事实辨认题。问下列哪项不是现代报纸的特征。A项意为“覆盖面广”。B为“风格统一”。C项意为“新闻报道的速度()”。D项意为“大众性”。ACD三项的意思在文中都可找到,B项与文章原意恰相反,所以选B

 

17. According to the passage, the reason why no two people really read the "same"

newspaper is that ______ .

A) people scan for the news they are interested in

B) different people prefer different newspapers

C) people are rarely interested in the same kind of news

D) people have different views about what a good newspaper is

[答案及分析]:[A]事实辨认题。问文章认为,没有两个人真正地读同样的报纸的原因是下列哪项。文章对此有回答:“For all these reasons”,而此句中的reason指的是前文中的几句话,由此不难看出,仅有A项与文章原意一致。

 

18. It can be conclude from the passage that newspaper readers ______ .

A) apply reading techniques skillfully

B) jump from one newspaper to another

C) appreciate the variety of a newspaper

D) usually read a newspaper selectively

[答案及分析]:[D]推论题。问从文中可以得出关于报纸读者的什么结论。A项意为“读者都熟练地运用了阅读技巧”。而文章原意只是说:“要有效地阅读报纸需要运用阅读技巧”(文章最后一句),并未说所有读者都能熟练运用阅读技巧,所以A项可排除。B项意为“读者总是将一份报纸换到另一份报纸”,而文章原意为从一份报纸的这儿跳到那儿,有选择地看所以项也不符合原文意思。C项意为“欣赏报纸的多样性”。文章原意为:一份好的报纸应该丰富多样,以满足不同读者的爱好、需要,因为不同的读者有不同的爱好、需要,他根据自己的爱好、需要来有选择地阅读报纸,而非读者喜欢报纸的多样性。所以排除C项选择D项。

 

19. A good newspaper offers "a variety"to readers because ______ .

A) it tries to serve different readers

B) it has to cover things that happen in a certain locality

C) readers are difficult to please

D) readers like to read different newspapers

[答案及分析]:[A]事实辨认题。问一份好的报纸之所以要给读者提供丰富多样的内容的原因是什么。文章对此作了直接明了的回答:attract many different readers.A项正是此句,所以正确项是A

 

20. The best title for this passage would be "______".

A) The importance of Newspaper Topicality

B) The Characteristics of a Good Newspaper

C) The Variety of a Good Newspaper

D) Some Suggestions on How to Read a Newspaper

[答案及分析]:[B]主旨题。问下列哪项做本文的题目最合适。通读全文,可知本文的主要内容是关于一份好报纸具有什么样的特征的问题,所以选B项。

 

 

 

 

 

 

27.    Passage Three

American society is not nap (午睡) friendly. In fact, says David Dinges, a sleep specialist at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine. "There's even a prohibition against admitting we need sleep". Nobody wants to be caught napping or found asleep at work. To quote a proverb: "Some sleep five hours, nature requires seven, laziness nine and wickedness eleven. " Wrong. The way not to fall asleep at work is to take naps when you need them. " We have to totally change our attitude toward napping", says Dr. William Dement of Stanford University, the godfather of sleep research. Last year a national commission led by Dement identified an "American sleep debt" which one member said was as important as the national debt, The commission was concerned about the dangers of sleepiness: people causing industrial accidents or falling asleep while driving. This may be why we have a new sleep policy in the White House. According to recent reports, president Clinton is trying to take a halfhour snooze (打瞌睡) every afternoon. About 60 percent of American adults nap when given the opportunity. We seem to have "a midafternoon quiet phase"also called"a secondary sleep gate. "Sleeping 15 minutes to two hours in the early afternoon can reduce stress and make us refreshed. Clearly, we were born to nap. We Superstars of Snooze don't nap to replace lost shuteye or to prepare for a night shift. Rather, we"snack"on sleep, whenever, wherever and at whatever time we feel like it. I myself have napped in buses, cars, planes and on boats; on floors and beds; and in libraries, offices and museums.

    这是一篇说明文,讨论了nap(小睡,打盹)及睡眠充足的积极意义。这是一个被人们忽视或误解已久的问题,作者试图在文中纠正人们的错误观点。

21. It is commonly accepted in American society that too much sleep is ______ .

A) unreasonable B) criminal C) harmful D) costly

[答案及分析]:[A]事实辨认题。美国社会中被普遍接受的观点是过多的睡眠具有下列哪个特征。A项意为“不合理的”,B项意为“有罪的”,C项意为“有害的”,D项意为“代价高的”。根据第一段第一句和最后一句可知A恰当。因为美国人认为“nature requires seven(生物本能需要7个小时)

22. The research done by the Dement commission shows that Americans ______ .

A) don't like to take naps

B) are terribly worried about their national debt

C) sleep less than is good for them

D) have caused many industrial and traffic accidents

[答案及分析]:[C]事实辨认题。问Dement Commission所做的研究表明了下列哪项事实。第三段说:去年,一个由Dement领导的国际委员会认为存在“美国人的睡眠欠债”,其中一个委员会成员认为该欠债跟国债一样重大。委员会很关注睡眠不足的危险……。显而易见C项正确。

23. The purpose of this article is to ______ .

A) warn us of the wickedness of napping

B) explain the danger of sleepiness

C) discuss the side effects of napping

D) convince the reader of the necessity of napping

[答案及分析]:[D]主旨题。问这篇文章的目的是什么。本文的主要内容是阐述napping的重要性,必要性。

24. The "American sleep debt"( Line 1, Para. 3) is the result of ______ .

A) the traditional misconception the Americans have about sleep

B) the new sleep policy of the Clinton Administration

C) the rapid development of American industry

D) the Americans' worry about the danger of sleepiness

[答案及分析]:[A]归纳事实题。问“美国人的睡眠欠债”是由下列何种原因造成的。文章在第一段开头就回答了这个问题:美国社会对napping持反对态度。第二段直接明了地对此作出评价:wrong.所以,毫无疑问正确答案为A

25. The second sentence of the last paragraph tells us that it is ______ .

A) preferable to have a sound sleep before a night shift

B) good practice to eat something light before we go to bed

C) essential to make up for cost sleep

D) natural to take a nap whenever we feel the need for it

[答案及分析]:[D]归纳事实题。问最后一段第二句话告诉了我们什么。最后一段第二句的意思是:不论是什么时候,什么地方,只要我们觉得有必要,就可以小寐片刻。D意为:当我们觉得需要小睡片刻是很自然的事。与文章原意吻合,所以D项正确。

28.   Passage Four

Violin prodigies (神童), I learned, have come in distinct waves from distinct regions. Most of the great performers if the late 19th and early 20th centuries were born and brought up in Russia and Eastern Europe. I asked Isaac Stern, one of the world's greatest violinists the reason for this phenomenon. "It is very clear," he told me. "They were all Jews(犹太人) and Jews at the time were severely oppressed and ill treated in that part of the world. They were not allowed into the professional fields, but they were allowed to achieve excellence on a concert stage. " As a result, every Jewish parent's dream was to have a child in the music school because it was a passport to the West.

Another element in the emergence of prodigies, I found, is a society that values

excellence in a certain field to nurture (培育) talent. Nowadays, the most nurturing societies seem to be in the Far East. "In Japan, a most competitive society, with stronger discipline than ours. " says Isaac Stem, children are ready to test their limits every day in many fields, including music. When Western music came to Japan after World War , that music not only became part of their daily lives, but it became a discipline as well. The Koreans and Chinese as we know, are just as highly motivated as the Japanese.

That's a good thing, because even prodigies must work hard. Next to hard work,

biological inheritance plays an important role in the making of a prodigy. J. S. Bach, for example, was the top of several generations of musicians, and four of his sons had significant careers in music.

    这是一篇说明文,以演奏小提琴的神童为何在19世纪末和20世纪初的俄国和东欧出现和最多为例,说明了导致神童产生的原因。

26.Jewish parents in Eastern Europe longed for their children to attend music school

because ______ .

A) it would allow them access to a better life in the West

B) Jewish children are born with excellent musical talent

C) they wanted their children to enter into the professional field

D) it would enable the family to get better treatment in their own country

[答案及分析]:[A]事实辨认题。问为什么在东欧的犹太父母希望他们的孩子进音乐学校文章第一段对此作了明确回答:那时候犹太人在那些地方受到压迫和歧视。他们不被允许进入诸如医生、律师等职业领域,但允许在音乐舞台表现出色。因此,每个犹太父母都梦想让孩子进入音乐学校,因为那是通往西方的护照。理解了这些内容后,显而易见答案为A项。

27.Nurturing societies as mentioned in the passage refer to societies that ______ .

A) enforce strong discipline on students who want to achieve excellence

B) treasure talent and provide opportunities for its full development

C) encourage people to compete with each other

D) promise talented children high positions

[答案及分析]:[B]句意理解题。问文章中提到的nurturing societies指的是一种什么样的社会。文章中论及nurturing societies(培养天才的社会)的内容在第二段。第二段第一句就是nurturing society的定义:a society that values excellence in a certain field and is able to nurture talent.A项意思与此相同,不过是换了一种提法而已。

28.Japan is described in the passage as a country that attaches importance to ______ .

A) all-round development. B) the learning of Western music

C) strict training of children D) variety in academic studies

[答案及分析]:[C]归纳事实题。问文中认为日本是一个重视下列哪项事情的国家。A项意为“全方位发展”。B项表示“学习西方音乐”。C项是“对孩子的严格训练”。D项意为“学术研究的丰富多样性”。文章第二段说:“In Japan,a most competitive society with stronger discipline than ours,children are ready to test their limits every day in many fields.”据此不难判断出C正确。

29.Which of the following contributes to the emergence of musical prodigies according to the passage?

A) A natural gift. B) Extensive knowledge of music. C) Very early training. D) A prejudice-free society.

[答案及分析]:[A]事实辨认题。问文章认为下列哪项有助于音乐神童的出现。文章第三段说:“Next to hard work,biological inheritance plays an important role in the making of a prodigy(除了勤奋,遗传因素在天才的成长中起着重要作用)”。A natural gift的意思跟biological inheritance相同,所以A正确。

30.Which of the following titles best summarises the main idea of the passage?

A) Jewish Contribution to Music. B) Training of Musicians in the World C) Music and Society D) The Making of Prodigies

[答案及分析]:[D]主旨题。问下列哪个标题最能概括本文的主要思想。全文主要讲的是形成天才的因素,所以D项合适。

29.   Part Reading Comprehension  Passage One

Psychologist George Spilich and colleagues at Washington College in Chestertown, Maryland, decided to find out whether, as many smokers say, smoking helps them to think and concentrate. Spilich put young non-smokers, active smokers and smokers deprived (被剥夺) of cigarettes through a series of tests. In the first test, each subject (试验对象) sat before a computer screen and pressed a key as soon as he or she recognized a target letter among a grouping of 96. In this simple test, smokers, deprived smokers and nonsmokers performed equally well. The next test was more complex, requiring all to scan sequences of 20 identical letters and respond the instant one of the letters transformed into a different one. Non-smokers were faster but under the stimulation of nicotine (尼古丁), active smokers were faster than deprived smokers. In the third test of short-term memory, non-smokers made the fewest errors, but deprived smokers committed fewer errors than active smokers. The fourth test required people to read a passage, then answer questions about it. Non-smokers remembered 19 percent more of the most important information than active smokers, and deprived smokers bested those who had smoked a cigarette just before testing. Active smokers tended not only to have poorer memories but al so had trouble separating important information from insignificant details. As our tests became more complex.Sums up Spilich,non-smokers performed better than smokers by wider and wider marginsHe predicts,smokers might per form adequately at many jobs-until they got complicated. A smoking airline pilot could fly adequately if no problems arose, but if something went wrong, smoking might damage his mental capacity.

    这是一篇说明文,讲的是关于测试吸烟是否有助于思考和集中精力的实验。

21. The purpose of George Spilich's experiments is _______.

A) to test whether smoking has a positive effect on the mental capacity of smokers

B) to show how smoking damages people's mental capacity

C) to prove that smoking affects people's regular performance

D) to find out whether smoking helps people's short-term memory

[答案及分析]:[A]事实辨认题,依据是第1段的两句话。

22. George Spilich's experiment was conducted in such a way as to _______.

A) compel the subjects to separate major information from minor details

B) put the subjects through increasingly complex tests

C) check the effectiveness of nicotine on smokers

D) register the prompt responses of the subjects

[答案及分析]:[B]本题问GS的实验是以下列哪 种方式进行的。文章第2段说the first testsimple test,3段开头说第2个实验more complex,最后一段开头说“随着测试逐渐变得复杂,不吸烟的人越来越比吸烟者做得好”,由此可见,George Spilich进行这种测试时以由易到难的顺序进行的。因而B项正确。23. The wordbested(Line 3, Para. 5) most probably means _______.

A) beat B) envied C) caught up with D) made the best of

[答案及分析]:[A]词义推断题。我们可以看出该被要求推断词 义的词所在的上下文意为:没有被允许吸烟的人忧于那些在测试前片刻吸过烟的人。best在此句中是动词,意思应该是“优于、超过”。而四个选项的意思分别是:beat(击败,战胜)catch up with(赶上)make the best of(充分利用)。可以看出,bestbeat意思最为接近。

24. Which of the following statements is true?

A) Active smokers in general performed better than deprived smokers.

B) Active smokers responded more quickly than the other subjects.

C) Non-smokers were not better than other subjects in performing simple tasks.

D) Deprived smokers gave the slowest responses to the various tasks.

[答案及分析]:[C]根据第2段第2句可知C项正确:另外,根据倒数第2段的后两句、第3段第2句可知ABD均不正确。

25. We can infer from the last paragraph that _______.

A) smokers should not expect to become airline pilots

B) smoking in emergency cases causes mental illness

C) no airline pilots smoke during flights

D) smokers may prove unequal to handing emergency cases

[答案及分析]:[D]与本题有关的信息在最后一段两句:Spilich认为,吸烟者能胜任并不复杂的工作,但不能胜行复杂的任务。一个吸烟的飞行员不出现任何问题时能称职也驾驶飞机飞行。但是一旦出现问题,吸烟就会损害他的大脑工作能力。

 

30.   Passage Two

There is no denying that students should learn something about how computers work, just as we expect them at least to understand that the internal combustion engine(内燃机) has something to do with burning fuel, expanding gases and pistons (活塞) being driven. For people should have some basic idea of how the things that they use do what they do. Further, students might be helped by a course that considers the computer's impact on society. But that is not what is meant by computer literacy. For computer literacy is not a form of literacy(读写能力)it is a trade skill that should not be taught as a liberal art.

Learning how to use a computer and learning how to program one are two distinct activities, A case might be made that the competent citizens of tomorrow should free themselves from their fear of computers. But this is quite different from saying that all ought to know how to program one. Leave that to people who have c hosen programming as a career. While programming can be lots of fun, and while our society needs some people who are experts at it, the same is true of auto repair and violin making.

Learning how to use a computer is not that difficult, and it gets easier all the time as programs become moreuserfriendly. Let us assume that in the future everyone is going to have to know how to use a computer to be a competent citizen. What does the phrase learning to use a computermean? It sounds like learning to drive a car, that is, it sounds as if there is some set of definite skills that, once acquired, enable one to use a computer.

In fact,learning to use a computeris much more likelearning to play a game, but learning the rules of one game may not help you play a second game, whose rules may not be the same. There is no such a thing as teaching someone how to use a computer. One can only teach people to use this or that program and generally that is easily accomplished.

    这是篇议论文,主要讨论了掌握计算机技能的问题。

26. To be the competent citizens of tomorrow, people should _______.

A) try to lay a solid foundation in computer science

B) be aware of how the things that they use do what they do

C) learn to use a computer by acquiring a certain set of skills

D) understand that programming a computer is more essential than repairing a car

[答案及分析]:[C]是文章第2段的意思:学习使用计算机并非学习编制计算机程序。必须使得将来的合格的公民对学习计算机不再有畏惧感。这并不是要求人们都应该懂得如何编程,那是以编制序为职业的人的事。

27. In the second paragraph violinmakingis mentioned to show that _______ .

A) programming a computer is as interesting as making a violin

B) our society needs experts in different fields

C) violin making requires as much skill as computer programming

D) people who can use a computer don't necessarily have to know computer program-

ming

[答案及分析]:[D]第2段的意思是:尽管编制程序可能很有趣味,尽管社会需要有人精通编程,如同需要有人精通修理汽车和制造小提琴。但是,学习计算机并非要求大家都学会编程,正如我们只需会开车就行,不必懂得修理汽车;只需会使用小提琴,而不必了解如何制作小提琴。故而D项正确。

28. Learning to use a computer is getting easier all the time because _______ .

A) programs are becoming less complicated

B) programs are designed to be convenient to users

C) programming is becoming easier and easier

D) programs are becoming readily available to computer users

[答案及分析]:[B]依据为第3段第1句话。

29. According to the author,the phraselearning to use a computer(Lines3,4,Para.3)

means learning _______.

A) a set of rules B) the fundamentals of computer science

C) specific programs D) general principles of programming

[答案及分析]:[C]该题具有一定难度,关键在于对第3段最后两句话的正确理解:何谓“学习使用计算机”?“学习使用计算机”听起来(sound like)跟“学习开车”一样,似乎(as if)只要掌握了一些确定的技巧就能学会使用它。在第4段,作者又说:其实(in fact),“学习使用计算机”更像“学习玩游戏”,掌握了一种游戏的规则并不能使你会玩另一种游戏,因为两种游戏的规则不同……。只能教一个人使用这种或那种程序,而这一般都能比较容易地做到。

30. The author's purpose in writing this passage is _______.

A) to stress the impact of the computer on society

B) to explain the concept of computer literacy

C) to illustrate the requirements for being competent citizens of tomorrow

D) to emphasize that computer programming is an interesting and challenging job

[答案及分析]:[B]主旨题。文章的主旨应能恰如其分地概括文中所阐述的内容,面不能太窄,即:不足以概括全部内容;但是面也不能太宽,即:包含了文中没有阐述的内容。根据这一原则,只有B项才能概括全文要说明的问题。ACD都是作者在讨论computer literacy这一问题时所涉及的几个方面,而并非中心内容,故可排除。

 

 

 

 

31.   Passage Three

The way people hold to the belief that a fun-filled, painfree life equals happiness actually reduces their chances of ever attaining real happiness, If fun and pleasure are equal to happiness then pain must be equal to unhappiness. But in fact, the opposite is true: more often than not things that lead to happiness involve some pain.

As a result, many people avoid the very attempts that are the source of true hap piness. They fear the pain inevitably brought by such things as marriage, raising children,professional achievement, religious commitment (承担的义务), self improvement. Ask a bachelor(单身汉) why he resists marriage even though he finds dating to be less and less satisfying. If he is honest he will tell you that he is afraid of making a commitment. For commitment is in fact quite painful. The single life i s filled with fun, adventure, excitement. Marriage has such moments, but they are not its most distinguishing features.

Couples with infant children are lucky to get a whole night's sleep or a three day vacation. I don't know any parent who would choose the word fun to describe raising children. But couple who decide not to have children never know the joys of watching a child grow up or of playing with a grandchild.

Understanding and accepting that true happiness has nothing to do with fun is one of the most liberating realizations. It liberates time: now we can devote more hours to activities that can genuinely increase our happiness. It liberates money: buying that new car or those fancy clothes that will do nothing to increase our happiness now seems pointless. And it liberates us from envy: we now understand that all those who are always having so much fun actually may not be happy at all.

    这是一篇议论文,阐述了幸福的获得这一严肃主题,试图澄清人们在幸福问题上的一些误解。

31. According to the author, a bachelor resists marriage chiefly because _______ .

A) he is reluctant to take on family responsibilities

B) he believes that life will be more cheerful if he remains single

C) he finds more fun in dating than in marriage

D) he fears it will put an end to all his fun adventure and excitement

[答案及分析]:[A]根据第3段第1句话,不难得知A项正确。

32. Raising children, in the author's opinion, is _______.

A) a moral duty B) a thankless job

C) a rewarding task D) a source of inevitable pain

[答案及分析]:[C]依据为第4段的意义:“有婴儿的父母若能睡一夜整觉或度上一个三天的假期,那真是太幸运了。我认识的为人父母的人中,没有谁认为抚养小孩子fun(好玩)。但是,决定不要孩子的夫妻永远也不会体会到看着孩子成长以及孙儿玩耍的那种快乐。”据此可排除ABD项而选C

33. From the last paragraph, we learn that envy sometimes stems from _______.

A) hatred B) misunderstanding

C) prejudice D) ignorance

[答案及分析]:[B]最后一段的意思是:“真正的幸福与fun无关,这样一种观念使得我们不得envy,因为我们已经理解到那些总是充满fun的人实际上可能并不幸福。”也就是说,我们原先所以有envy,是存在误解(misunderstand)

34. To understand what true happiness is one must _______.

A) have as much run as possible during one's lifetime

B) make every effort to liberate oneself from pain

C) put up with pain under all circumstances

D) be able to distinguish happiness from fun

[答案及分析]:[D]第1段和第2段的第1句话及第34段所举的论据及第5段的意思都表明D项正确。

35. What is the author trying to tell us?

A) Happiness often goes hand in hand with pain.

B) One must know how to attain happiness.

C) It is important to make commitments.

D) It is pain that leads to happiness.

[答案及分析]:[A]作者在第1段就否定了好玩、无痛苦就等于幸福这一观点,明确提出自己的看法:实际上,导致幸福的事情多半伴随着痛苦。随后几段都在论证这一观点。很明显,A项正确。

 

 

 

32.  Passage Four

It's very interesting to note where the debate about diversity(多样化) is taking place. It is taking place primarily in political circles. Here at the College Fund, we have a lot of contact with top corporate(公司的) leadersnone of them is talking about getting rid of those instruments that produce diversity. In fact, they say that if their companies are to compete in the global village and in the global market place, diversity is an imperative. They also say that the need for talented, skilled Americans means we have to expand the pool of potential employees. And in looking at where birth rates are growing and at where the population is shifting, corporate America understands that expanding the pool means promoting policies that help provide skills to more minorities, more women and more immigrants. Corporate leaders know that if that doesn't occur in our society, they will not have the engineers, the scientists, the lawyers, or the business managers they will need.

Likewise, I don't hear people in the academy saying.Let's go backward. Let's go back to the good old days, when we had a meritocracy (不拘一格选人才)(which was never true-we never had a meritocracy, although we've come closer to it in the last 30 years). I recently visited a great little college in New York w here the campus has doubled its minority population in the last six years. I talked with an African American who has been a professor there for a long time, and she remembers that when she first joined the community, there were fewer than a handful of minorities on campus. Now, all of us feel the university is better because of the diversity. So where we hear this debate is primarily in political circles and in the media-not in corporate board rooms or on college campuses.

36. The wordimperative( Line 5, Para. 1) most probably refers to something _______.

A) superficial B) remarkable C) debatable D) essential

[答案及分析]:[D]词义推断题。文章说:在公司的领导人中,没有谁议论说要消除那些会产生多样性的东西。事实上,他们认为如果公司在世界市场上具有竞争力,多样性是imperative。据此可以推测出imperative的意思应该是“必要的,重要的”之类。四个选项的词义分别是:superficial(表面的)remarkable(令人惊奇的)debatable(有争议的)essential(不可少的,必要的)。故而[D]项正确。

37. Which of the following groups of people still differ in their views on diversity?

A) Minorities. B) Politicians. C) Professors. D) Managers.

[答案及分析]:[B]题目实际上是问下列哪种人赞成多样化。Aminorities(少数民族)属于反对多元化者的排挤、反对对象,显然不对。根据第1段第34句话可排除D项。根据第2段第1句可排除C项。根据第1段第12句可知B项正确。

38. High corporate leaders seem to be in favor of promoting diversity so as to _______.

A) lower the rate of unemployment

B) win equal political rights for minorities

C) be competitive in the world market

D) satisfy the demands of a growing population

[答案及分析]:[C]选择依据为第1段第4句。AB、三项的意思在文中都找不到。

39. It can be inferred from the passage that _______.

A) meritocracy can never be realized without diversity

B) American political circles will not accept diversity

C) it is unlikely that diversity will occur in the U. S. media D) minorities can only enter the fields where no debate is heard about diversity. [答案及分析]:[A]根据第4段第2句话和professor的评述可知A正确。根据文章原意,政界在是否实行多样化存在争议,这并不能得了B项的意思。C项说美国传媒不可能实现多样性,文章没有此意。文章只是说在美国新闻界对多样性问题存有争议。

40. According to the passage diversity can be achieved in American society by _______.

A) expanding the pool of potential employees.

B) promoting policies that provide skills to employees

C) training more engineers, scientists lawyers and business managers

D) providing education for all regardless of race or sex

[答案及分析]:[D]第1段说:企业家们认为,多样化是必要的。对有才能的、有技术的人才的需要要求我们扩大潜在劳动力的来源。看看人口出生率增长的地方和人口流动的地方,美国人民认识到扩大来源要求推行使得更多的少数民族、更多妇女、移民获得技术的政策。否则,就无法得到所需的工程师、科学家、律师。由此可见,D项符合文章原意。

 

 

 

33.   Part Reading Comprehension

Passage One

The view over a valley of a tiny village with thatched(草盖的) roof cottages around a church; a drive through a narrow village street lined with thatched cottages painted pink or white; the sight over the rolling hills of a pretty collection of thatched farm buildings-these are still common sights in parts of England. Most people will agree that the thatched roof is an essential part of the attraction of the English countryside.

Thatching is in fact the oldest of all the building crafts practised in the British Isles(英伦诸岛). Although thatch has always been used for cottage and farm buildings, it was once used for castles and churches, too.

Thatching is a solitary(独自的) craft, which often runs in families. The craft of thatching as it is practised today has changed very little since the Middle Ages. Over 800 full-time thatchers are employed in England and Wales today, maintaining and renewing the old roofs as well as thatching newer houses. Many property owners choose thatch not only for its beauty but because they know it will keep them cool in summer and warm in winter.

In fact, if we look at developing countries, over half the world lives under thatch, but they all do it in different ways. People in developing countries are often reluctant to go back to traditional materials and would prefer modern buildings. However, they may lack the money to allow them to import the necessary materials. Their temporary mud huts with thatched roofs of wild grasses often only last six months. Thatch which has been done the British way last from twenty to sixty years, and is an effective defence against the heat .

 

    这是一篇记叙文,讲述了英国的乡村一景一用草作房顶的村舍。

21. Which of the following remains a unique feature of the English countryside?

A) Cottages with thatched roofs.  B) Churches with cottages around them.

  C) Rolling hills with pretty farm buildings.  D) Narrow streets lined with pink or white houses.

[答案与分析]:A]根据文章第1段,尤其是该段的最后一句,可同时排除BCD,选择A

22. What do we know about thatching as a craft?

A) It is quite different from what it used to be.

B) It is in most cases handed down among family members.

C) It is practised on farms all over England.

D) It is a collective activity.

[答案与分析]:B]根据第3段第1句可知B项正确并同时可排除D项。A项与该段第2句意思相左。选项C的出题动机在于测试考生对细节的把握,具体地说,是测试学生对第2段第1句的理解。仔细阅读该句,可知C项与此句其实似是而非,应该排除。

23. Thatched houses are still preferred because of ________.

A) their durability              B) their easy maintenance

C) their cheap and ready-made materials      D) their style and comfort

[答案与分析]:D]正确回答本题的关键在于文章第3段最后一句话。

24. People in developing countries also live under thatch because ______-.

A) they like thatched houses better than other buildings

B) thatch is an effective defence against the heat

C) thatched roof houses are the cheapest

D) thatched cottages are a big tourist attraction

[答案与分析]:C]本题问发展中国家的居民也往草顶屋的原因是什么。整篇文章涉及到发展中国家(developing country)的信息都在第3段。根据该段第3句话可知C项正确。A项显然与文章相左。B项陈述本身并不一定错,但它不是题目中所问的原因。D项的意思在文中找不到,故而也不对。

25. We can learn from the passage that _______.

A) the English people have a special liking for thatched houses

B) most thatched cottages in England are located on hillsides

C) thatching is a building craft first created by the English people

D) thatched cottages in England have been passed down from ancient times

[答案与分析]:D]文章第2段第1句话和第3段第2句话都可表明D项的正确性。文章只是说明草作房顶的村舍在英国农村很常见,但并不能由此得出A项的结论。文章在开头描绘了一幅英国乡村景色图:在蜿蜒的山坡上有许多草舍。但并没有说英国的大多数草舍都建在山坡上,故B项也不对。至于C项,从文章中也无法得出这一结论。

 

34.   Passage Two

President Coolidge's statement, "The business of America is business," still points to an important truth today-that business institutions have more prestige(威望) in American society than any other kind of organization, including the government. Why do business institutions possess this great prestige?

One reason is that Americans view business as being more firmly based on the ideal of competition than other institutions in society. Since competition is seen as the major source of progress and prosperity by most Americans, competitive business institutions are respected. Competition is not only good in itself, it is the means by which other basic American values such as individual freedom, equality of opportunity, and hard work are protected.

Competition protects the freedom of the individual by ensuring that there is no monopoly(垄断) of power, In contrast to one, all-powerful government, many businesses compete against each other for profits. Theoretically, if one business tries to take unfair advantage of its customers, it will lose to competing business which treats its customers more fairly. Where many businesses compete for the customers' dollar, they cannot afford to treat them like inferiors or slaves.A contrast is often made between business, which is competitive, and government, which is a monopoly. Because business is competitive, many Americans believe that it is more supportive of freedom than government, even though government leaders are elected by the people and business leaders are not. Many Americans believe, then, that competition is as important, or even more important, than democracy in preserving freedom.

Competition in business is also believed to strengthen the ideal of equality of opportunity. Competition is seen as an open and fair race where success goes to the swiftest person regardless of his or her social class background. Competitive success is commonly seen as the American alternative to social rank based on family background. Business is therefore viewed as an expression of the idea of equality of opportunity rather than the aristocratic (贵族) idea of inherited privilege.

    本文是一篇议论文,论述了商业之所以在美国社会具有声誉、威望,其原因在于竞争这样一种观点。

26. The statement "The business of America is business" probably means "_______".

A) America is a great power in world business

B) Business is of primary concern to American

C) The business institutions in America are concerned with commerce

D) Business problems are of great importance to the American government

[答案与分析]:B]正确回答本题的关键在于理解句中的两个business含义不同。business作为名词其意思除“商业,营业(commerce,industry,trade)”外,还指“事务,职责(affair,duty)”。本句中前一个business可理解为“主要事务,头等大事”,后一个business则意为“商业,生意”。

27. Americans believe that they can realize their personal values only ________.

A) by protecting their individual freedom    C) by way of competition

B) when given equality of opportunity       D) through doing business

[答案与分析]:C]文章第2段第2句、第3句是回答本题的依据。AB都是竞争的优越性,而非实现个人价值的手段、原因。

28. Who can benefit from business competition?

A) People with ideals of equality and freedom.B) Both business institutions and government.

C) Honest businessmen.          D) Both businessmen and their customers.

[答案与分析]:D]文章第3段的中心思想恰好就是D项。

29. Government is believed to differ strikingly from business in that government is characterized by _______.

A) its role in protecting basic American values

B) its absolute control of power

C) its democratic way of exercising leadership

D) its function in preserving personal freedom

[答案与分析]:B]文章第4段明确指出:“business is competitive,and government is monopoly.”,故而B正确。其实,从第3段也可得出B项正确的结构。该段有这样的内容:“竞争保护了个人自由,因为它没有垄断。与具有无限权力的政府相比,众多的商业机构为了利润而彼此竞争。”

30. It can be inferred from the passage that the author believes ______.

A) in many countries success often depends on one's social status

B) businesses in other countries are not as competitive as those in America

C) American businesses are more democratic than those in other countries

D) Americans are more ambitious than people in other countries

[答案与分析]:A]根据文章最后一段的内容不难得出A项的结论。

35.   Passage Three

The appeal of advertising to buying motives can have both negative and posive effects. Consumers may be convinced to buy a product of poor quality or high price because of an advertisement. For example, some advertisers have appealed to people's desire for better fuel economy for their cars by advertising automotive products that improve gasoline mileage. Some of the products work. Others are worthless ad a waste of consumers' money.

Sometimes advertising is intentionally misleading. A few years ago a brand of bread was offered to dieters (节食者) with the message that there were fewer calories (热量单位,大卡) in every slice. It turned out that the bread was not dietetic (适合于节食的), but just regular bread. There were fewer calories because it was sliced very thin, but there were the same number of calories in every loaf.

On the positive side, emotional appeals may respond to a consumer's real concerns. Consider fire insurance. Fire insurance may be sold by appealing to fear of loss. But fear of loss is the real reason for fire insurance. The security of knowing that property is protected by insurance makes the purchase of fire insurance a worthwhile investment for most people. If consumers consider the quality of the insurance plans as well as the message in the ads, they will benefit from the advertising.

Each consumer must evaluate her or his own situation. Are the benefits of the product important enough to justify buying it? Advertising is intended to appeal to consumers, but it does not force them to buy the product. Consumers still control the final buying decision.

 

    这是一篇议论文,其要论述的观点是:广告具有正、反两方面的影响。

31. Advertising can persuade the consumer to buy worthless products by ______-.

A) maintaining a balance between quality and price

B) convincing him of their low price

C) appealing to his buying motives     D) stressing their high quality

[答案与分析]:C]答题依据为文章第1段前两句话。文章中没有A项的意思,况且凭常识就可排除ABD两项都C项的内容,包含于C项。C项较BD而言是全面的。

32. The reason why the bread advertisement is misleading is that _______.

A) the total number of calories in the loaf remained the same

B) thin slices of bread could contain more calories

C) the loaf was cut into regular slices    D) the bread was not genuine bread

[答案与分析]:A]其他三项显然与文章的陈述恰好相反,不符合事实。

33. The passage tells us that ________.

A) advertisements occasionally force consumers into buying things they don't need

B) the buying motives of consumers are controlled by advertisements

C) sometimes advertisements really sell what the consumer needs

D) fire insurance is seldom a worthwhile investment

[答案与分析]:C]文章第1段说,根据广告买的东西,“some of the products work;3段举例说明广告的积极作用(positive side);emotional appeals may respond to a consumer's real concerns.以上两点都是选择C项的依据。至ABD三项,都很容易看出它们与文章内容相左。

34. It can be inferred from the passage that a smart consumer should _______.

A) be familiar with various advertising strategies

B) think carefully about the benefits described in the advertisements

C) guard against the deceiving nature of advertisements

D) avoid buying products that have strong emotional appeal

[答案与分析]:B]在论述了广告的正、负两方面的影响后,作者在第4段写道:“每个消费者都应该根据自己的情况做出分析、判断(Each consumer must evaluate her or his own situation)。”这正是B项的意思。

35. The passage is mainly about ______.

A) ways to protect the interests of the consumer

B) how to make a wise buying decision

C) the function of advertisements in promoting sales

D) the positive and negative aspects of advertising

[答案与分析]:D]这是一道主旨题。本文开宗明义:广告具有积极、消极两方面的影响。而且可以看出,整篇文章都在证明这一观点。

 

36.   Passage Four

So long as teachers fail to distinguish between teaching and learning, they will continue to undertake to do for children that which only children can do for themselves. Teaching children to read is not passing reading on to them. It is certainly not endless hours spent in activities about reading. Douglas insists that "reading cannot be taught directly and schools should stop trying to do the impossible."

Teaching and learning are two entirely different processes. They differ in kind and function. The function of teaching is to create the conditions and the climate that will make it possible for children to devise the most efficient system for teaching themselves to read. Teaching is also a public activity: It can be seen and observed.

Learning to read involves all that each individual does to make sense of the world of printed language. Almost all of it is private, for learning is an occupation of the mind, and that process is not open to public scrutiny.

If teacher and learner roles are not interchangeable, what then can be done through teaching that will aid the child in the quest (探索) for knowledge? Smith has one principal rule for all teaching instructions. "Make learning to read easy, which means making reading a meaningful, enjoyable and frequent experience for children."

When the roles of teacher and learner are seen for what they are, and when both teacher and learner fulfill them appropriately, then much of the pressure and feeling of failure for both is eliminated. Learning to read is made easier when teachers create an environment where children are given the opportunity to solve the problem of learning to read by reading.

    这是一篇议论文,在对传统的阅读教学方式进行批判的同时,论述了作者自己对阅读的教学观;阅读的教与学是两个完全不同的过程。

36. The problem with the reading course as mentioned in the first paragraph is that _____.

A) too much time is spent in teaching about reading

B) reading tasks are assigned with little guidance

C) it is one of the most difficult school courses

D) students spend endless hours in reading

[答案与分析]:A]答题依据为文章第1段第3句话:“It is certainly not endless hours spent in activities about reading.

37. The teaching of reading will be successful if ______.

A) teachers can make their teaching activities observable

B) teachers can devise the most efficient system for reading

C) teachers can improve conditions at school for the students

D) teachers can enable students to develop their own way of reading

[答案与分析]:DA项的陈述与第2段最后一句话不符,而且can be seen and observedthe teaching的一个特点,而非其成功的原因或标志,故A可排除。C项所说的condition的含义显然与文章第2段第2句的condition不是同一个意思。根据第2段第2句话可排除B、确定D正确。

38. The word "scrutiny" (Line 3, Para. 3) most probably means "________".

A) suspicion      B) control       C) observation     D) inquiry

[答案与分析]:C]本题是词义题。文章对learningteaching做了比较,指出二者具有不同的特点:“Teaching is a public activity;It can be seen and observed”,而learningis not open to public scrutiny”。可见,scrutinybe seen and observed的含义近似,故observation为正确答案。

39. According to the passage, learning to read will no longer be a difficult task when ______.

A) teaching helps children in the search for knowledge

B) teacher and learner roles are interchangeable

C) reading enriches children' experience

D) children become highly motivated

[答案与分析]:D]根据文章第4、第5段的内容,尤其是第5段最后一句话,可以看出D项为正确答案。

40. The main idea of the passage is that ______.

A) reading is more complicated than generally believed

B) reading ability is something acquired rather than taught

C) teachers should encourage students to read as widely as possible

D) teachers should do as little as possible in helping students learn to read

[答案与分析]:B]文章第1段最后一句话引用的Douglas的观点“reading cannot be taught directly”,其实就是作者自己的观点。并且可以看出,文章全篇都是在论证这一观点,B项不过是这一观点的翻版说法。

 

37.  Part Reading Comprehension

Passage One

The biggest safety threat facing airlines today may not be a terrorist with a gun, but the man with the portable computer in business class. In the last 15 years, pilots have reported well over 100 incidents that could have been caused by electromagnetic interference. The source of this interference remains unconfirmed, but increasingly, experts are pointing the blame at portable electronic devices such as portable computers, radio and cassette players and mobile telephones.

RTCA, an organization which advises the aviation (航空) industry, has recommended that all airlines ban (禁止) such devices from being used during "critical" stages of light, particularly take-off and landing. Some experts have gone further, calling for a total ban during all flights. Currently, rules on using these devices are left up to individual airlines. And although some airlines prohibit passengers from using such equipment during take-off and landing, most are reluctant to enforce a total ban, given that many passengers want to work during flights.

The difficulty is predicting how electromagnetic fields might affect an aircraft's computers. Experts know that portable devices emit radiation which affects those wavelengths which aircraft use for navigation and communication. But, because they have not been able to reproduce these effects in a laboratory, they have no way of knowing whether the interference might be dangerous or not.

The fact that aircraft may be vulnerable (易受损的) to interference raises the risk that terrorists may use radio system in order to damage navigation equipment. As worrying, though, is the passenger who can't hear the instructions to turn off his radio because the music's too loud.

本文是一篇说明文,介绍了手提电脑、移动电话等电子产品在使用时发出的电磁波对电子设备产生影响的情况。

21.The passage is mainly about_______.

A) a new regulation for all airlines B) the defects of electronic devices

C) a possible cause of aircraft crashes D) effective safety measures for air flight

[答案与分析]:[C]主旨题。问本文的大意是什么。本题主要干扰项是B(电子设施的危害)B项不恰当,因为文章主要介绍的是一些电子产品对飞机上电子设施的干扰会带来空难危险,而非电子设施的危害。

22.What is said about the over 100 aircraft incidents in the past 15 years?

A) They may have been caused by the damage to the radio systems.

B) They may have taken place during takeoff and landing.

C) They were proved to have been caused by the passengers' portable computers.

D) They were suspected to have resulted from electromagnetic interference.

[答案与分析]:[D]回答依据为文章第2句话。could have been表示推测,意为“可能”。

23.Few airlines want to impose a total ban on their passengers using electronic devices because_______.

A) they don't believe there is such a danger as radio interference

B) the harmful effect of electromagnetic interference is yet to be proved

C) most passengers refuse to take a plane which bans the use of radio and cassette

players

D) they have other effective safety measures to fall back on

[答案与分析]:[C]回答依据为文章第2段最后一句。given表示“考虑到,原因在于”。由于许多乘客想在乘飞机时工作,若全面禁止使用那些可能干扰航空电子设备的东西,可能有些乘客就不坐这种飞机了。

24.Why is it difficult to predict the possible effects of electromagnetic fields on an airplane's computers?

A) Because it is extremely dangerous to conduct such research on an airplane.

B) Because it remains a mystery what wavelengths are liable to be interfered with.

C) Because research scientists have not been to produce the same effects in labs.

D) Because experts lack adequate equipment to do such research.

[答案与分析]:[C]回答依据为第3段最后一句话。

25.It can be inferred from the passage that the author_______.

A) is in favor of prohibiting passengers' use of electronic devices completely

B) has overestimated the danger of electromagnetic interference

C) hasn't formed his own opinion on this problem

D) regards it as unreasonable to exercise a total ban during flight

[答案与分析]:[C]通读全文不难看出,作者只是在客观地描述人们对电磁波干扰航空设施的认识与瓜,并没有加入自己的评论与看法。

 

38.  Passage Two

The rise of multinational corporations (跨国公司), global marketing, new communications technologies, and shrinking cultural differences have led to an unparalleled increase in global public relations or PR.

Surprisingly,since modern PR was largely an American invention,the U.S.leader ship in public relations is being threatened by PR efforts in other countries.Ten years ago, for example, the world's top five public relations agencies were Americanowned. In 1991, only one was. The British in particular are becoming more sophisticated and creative. A recent survey found that more than half of all British companies include PR as part of their corporate (公司的) planning activities, compared to about one-third of U.S. companies, It may not be long before London replaces New York as the capital of PR.

Why is America lagging behind in the global PR race? First, Americans as a whole

tend to be fairly provincial and take more of an interest in local affairs. Knowledge of world geography, for example, has never been strong in this country. Secondly, Americans lag behind their European and Asian counterparts (相对应的人)in knowing a second language. Less than 5 percent of Burson-Marshall's U.S. employees know two languages. Ogilvy and Mather has about the same percentage Conversely, some European firms have half or more of their employees fluent in a second language. Finally, people involved in PR abroad tend to keep a closer eye on international affairs. In the financial PR area, for instance, most Americans read the Wall Street Journal. Overseas, their counterparts read the Journal as well as the Financial Times of London and The Economist, Publications not often read in this country.

Perhaps the PR industry might take a lesson from Ted Turner of CNN(Cable News Network). Turner recently announced that the work "foreign" would no longer be used on CNN news broadcasts. According to Turner, global communications have made the nations of the world so interdependent that there is no longer any such thing as foreign.

 

    这是一篇议论文,论述了美国公共关系行业(PR industry)落后于欧洲、亚洲一些国家的原因。

26.According to the passage, U.S. leadership in public relations is being threatened

because_______.

A) an unparalleled increase in the number of public relations companies

B) shrinking cultural differences and new communications technologies

C) the decreasing number of multinational corporations in the U.S.

D) increased efforts of other countries in public relations

[答案与分析]:[D]回答依据为文章第2段第1句话。介绍by可表示方式、原因,意为“以……方式,由于”。

27.London could soon replace New York as the center of PR because_______.

A) British companies are more ambitious than U.S. companies

B) British companies place more importance on PR than U.S. companies

C) British companies are heavily involved in planning activities

D) four of the world's top public relations agencies are British-owned

[答案与分析]:[B]根据文章第2段最后两句话可知B为答案。

28.The word "provincial" (Line 2, Para. 3) most probably means "_______".

A) limited in outlook

B) like people from the provinces

C) rigid in thinking

D) interested in world financial affairs

[答案与分析]:[A]选择依据第二:①我们这过province这一句词,知道它意为“省;领域,范围,本份”,根据构词法及provincial在句中担当的成份,可provincial是一形容词,意思大概是“范围有限的”之类;②分析句子结构可知:and是一个表示并列关系的连词,所以be provincial的意思和take more of an interest in local affairs(主要关注本国、本地事物)相近;③根据第3段第2句话(即有provincial的那句)与第3句话的关系也可推断出答案为B,因为第3句话是举例说明第2句话的。

29.We learn from the third paragraph that employees in the American PR industry_______.

A) speak at least one foreign language fluently

B) are ignorant about world geography

C) are not as sophisticated as their European counterparts

D) enjoy reading a great variety of English business publications

[答案与分析]:[BA项显然与文章中所指出的第2个理由(Secondly,)恰相反。B项与第1个理由相吻合。故答案为B

30.What lesson might the PR industry take from Ted Turner of CNN?

A) American PR companies should be more internationally minded.

B) The American PR industry should develop global communications technologies.

C) People working in PR should be more fluent in foreign languages.

D) People involved in PR should avoid using the word "foreign".

[答案与分析]:[ATed Turner of Cnn说“that the wordforeign'would no longer be used,其实际含义是:由于现代通讯使得全球各国紧密地连接在一起,相互之间的关系极其密切,所以我们应该将视野放宽,具有强烈的国际观念,而不要将注意力仅仅放在国内。故而A项正确。B项显然错误。C项本身的陈述并没错,但它与题干所问的Ted Turner of CNN没关系。D项则是肤浅地理解字面意思了。

 

 

 

39.   Passage Three

Brazil has become one of the developing world's great successes at reducing population growth but more by accident that design. While countries such as India have made joint efforts to reduce birth rates, Brazil has had better result without really trying, says George Martine at Harvard.

Brazil's population growth rate has dropped from 2.99 a year between 1951 and

1960 to 1.93 a year between 1981 and 1990, and Brazilian women now have only 2.7 children on average. Martine says this figure may have fallen still further since 1990, an achievement that makes it the envy of many other Third World countries.

Martine puts it down to, among other things, soap operas (通俗电视连续剧) and instalment (分期付款) plans introduced in the 1970s. Both played an important, although indirect, role in lowering the birth rate. Brazil is one of the world's biggest producers of soap operas. Globlo, Brazil's most popular television network, shows three hours of soaps six nights a week, while three others show at least one hour a night.Most soaps are based on wealthy characters living the high life in big cities.

"Although they have never really tried to work in a message towards the problems of reproduction, they describe middle and upper class values not many children, different attitudes towards sex, women working," says Martine. "They sent this image to all parts of Brazil and made people conscious of other patterns of behaviour and other values, which were put into a very attractive package."

Meanwhile, the instalment plans tried to encourage the poor to become consumers.

"This led to an enormous change in consumption patterns and consumption was in compatible (不相容的) with unlimited reproduction." says Martine.

 

    本文的主要内容是分析Brazil(巴西)人口增长率降低的原因。

31.According to the passage, Brazil has cut back its population growth_______.

A) by educating its citizens

B) by careful family panning C) by developing TV programmes

D) by chance

[答案与分析]:[D]选择依据为文章第1句话。该句中的by accident与选项D中的by chance同义,都表示“出于偶然”。

32.According to the passage, many Third World countries_______.

A) haven't attached much importance to birth control

B) would soon join Brazil in controlling their birth rate

C) haven't yet found an effective measure to control their population

D) neglected the role of TV plays in family planning

[答案与分析]:[C]文章第1段说:巴西在降低人口增长率方面是最成功的发展中国家之一,但其原因并非主要是政策有效,而是出于偶然。尽管印度等国采取了许多措施试图降低人口增长率,但巴西却毫不费力地就取得了效果。由此可见C项正确。

33.The phrase "puts it down to" (Line 1, Para. 3) is closest in meaning to "_______"

A) attributes it to

B) sums it up as

C) finds it a reason for

D) compares it to

[答案与分析]:[A]将四个备选项分别代入文中替换put it down to,可见只有A项最合适。attribute to(归因于)sum up(总结,概括)compareto(把……比作)

34.Soap operas have helped in lowering Brazil's birth rate because_______.

A) they keep people sitting long hours watching TV  B) they have gradually changed people's way of life

C) people are drawn to their attractive package   D) they popularize birth control measures

[答案与分析]:[BAD两项都显然不对。根据第4Martine的评论可选B排除C项。Martine说:“尽管这些肥皂刷从来没有着意去涉及人口繁殖问题,它们只是描写了中上层阶级的生活价值观一少生孩子,独特的性观念,妇女在外工作。肥皂剧传播着这些信息,使得人们逐渐认识、理解了另外一种生活方式、人生观,这种生活方式和人生观被认为是很有吸引力。”

35. [答案及分析]:[B]回答依据为文章最后一段:“分期付款刺激低收入者的消费。‘这导致了消费方式的巨大变化,扩大消费和多繁殖后代是矛盾的’,Martine评论说。”言下之意,要想提高消费水平,就不能生很多子女。B项正是此意。

 

40.  Passage Four

There seems never to have been a civilization without toys, but when and how they developed is unknown. They probably came about just to five children something to do.

In the ancient world, as is today, most boys played with some kinds of toys and

most girls with another. In societies where social roles are rigidly determined,boys pattern their play after the activities of their fathers and girls after the tasks of their mothers. This is true because boys and girls are being prepared, even in play, to step into the roles and responsibilities of the adult world.

What is remarkable about the history of toys is not so much how they changed over the centuries but how much they have remained the same. The changes have been

mostly in terms of craftsmanship, mechanics, and technology. It is the universality of toys with regard to their development in all part of the world and their persistence to the present that is amazing. In Egypt, the Americas, China, Japan and among the Arctic (北极的) peoples, generally the same kinds of toys appeared. Variations depended on local customs and ways of life because toys imitate their surroundings. Nearly every civilization had dolls, little weapons, toy soldiers, tiny animals and vehicles.

Because toys can be generally regarded as a kind of art form, they have not been

subject to technological leaps that characterize inventions for adult use.The progress from the wheel to the oxcart to the automobile is a direct line of ascent (进步). The progress from a rattle(拨浪鼓)used by a baby in 3000 BC to one used by an infant today, however, is not characterized by inventiveness. Each rattle is the product of the artistic tastes of the times and subject to the limitations of available materials.

 

    本文的主要内容是讨论玩具的历史,说明这样一种观点:玩具反映人们的艺术观,几十年来玩具的变化不大。

36.The reason why the toys most boys play with are different from those that girls play

with is that_______.

A) their social roles are rigidly determined

B) most boys would like to follow their fathers' professions

C) boys like to play with their fathers while girls with their mothers

D) they like challenging activities

[答案与分析]:[A]问男孩的玩具与女孩的不一样的原因是什么。选择依据是文章第2层。

37.One aspect of "the universality of toys" lies in the fact that_______.

A) technological advances have greatly improved the durability of toys

B) the improvement of craftsmanship in making toys depends on the efforts of

universities

C) the exploration of the universe has led to the creation of new kinds of toys

D) the basic characteristics of toys are the same the world over

[答案与分析]:[Duniversity意为“一般性、普遍性;多方面性”。文中关于the university of toys的信息在第3段第3句。第456句是对第3读的说明,根据这几句可知D项正确。A项与文意恰恰相反(依据为第4段第1句话)文中根本没有提到过university(大学)B项与文意不符。Universe意为“宇宙,天地万物,全世界”,文中也没有涉及过the exploration of the universe

38.Which of the following is the author's view on the historical development of toys?

A) The craftsmanship in toy-making has remained essentially unchanged.

B) Toys have remained basically the same all through the centuries.

C) The toy industry has witnessed great leaps in technology in recent years.

D) Toys are playing an increasingly important role in shaping a child's character.

[答案与分析]B。本题干扰项主要是ACraftsmanship意为“技巧,技术,技艺”。根据文章第3段不难看出许多年来基本没变的是玩具本身,而非其制造工艺、技术。故A项错误。

39.Regarded as a kind of art form, toys_______.

A) follow a direct line of ascent

B) also appeal greatly to adults

C) are not characterized by technological progress

D) reflect the pace of social progress

[答案与分析]:[CA项意为“作为一种艺术形式,玩具有了很大的进步”;B项意为“将玩具看作一种艺术形式,它对成年人也很有吸引力”;C项意为“被看作是一种艺术形式的玩具,它的特征并非表现在技术进步上”;D项意为“被看作艺术形式的玩具反映了社会进步的历程。”概据第4段第1句及第3句话的举说明可知C项项正确。

40.The author used the example of a rattle to show that_______.

A) in toymaking there is a continuity in the use of materials

B) even the simplest toys can reflect the progress of technology

C) it often takes a long time to introduce new technology into toymaking

D) even a simple toy can mirror the artistic tastes of the time

[答案与分析]:[D]选择依据为文章第4段。

责任编辑:  邓蓓静


 

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